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in a little time is very dense, and forms a natural defence. We have known cyder drank, and it has not been discovered, till the vessel was empty, that the bung had been forgotten. The Herefordshire farmers think the cyder should have something to • feed on;' and they add egg-shells, isinglass, &c. but this is a tacit confession of the weakness of their liquor. The annual produce of four counties, Gloucester, Monmouth, Hereford, and Worcestershire, is estimated on an average of 30,000 hogsheads.

• Notwithstanding the extraordinary produce of fruit, which this country affords, in a plentiful year, it is a disputable point; especially between landlord and tenant; whether, upon the whole, the liquor it yields be a good, or an evil. This is a matter, which would be difficult to determine, demonstrably.-I am inclined to believe, from what I have seen, that, every thing conlidered, it is, under present circumstances, the latter.

• The damage done to the crops, by the drip and Made of the trees, is annual, certain, and, at present, excessive. Whereas a general hit of fruit is most uncertain ;- is not expected often. er than

every third year. This is the fourth year from the last general fruitage. Many trees, during this interval, not having, perhaps, matured an apple: while this year, though the produce bc abundant, the price is fo low, that it little more tha: pays for labour, carriage, and attention : yet the neat profits of this year, small as they may be, have to itand against the daco mage of four years; also against a proportionate thare of the cost of plants, planting, grafting, and defending the young trees; of the mill-house, and apparatus ; of the wear and tear of casks, and of cellar room; as well as against the evils of a habit of drinking ; which, in a fruit vear, is the cause of much idleness; and, in a dearth of fruit, is the cause of an unnecelfary waste of malt liquor ; which, also, the neat profit of the fruit year, ' has to stand against.

• Nevertheless, it is sufficiently evident, from data intersperscd in the foregoing pages, though difficult to prove, that you:hful, bearing trees, even of the common sorts of fruit, and under their present neglect, produce, on a par of years, more than will repay their several encumbrances; and that the more valuable kinds are very advantageous to their occupiers.'

This disadvantage may, in our author's opinion, be lefsened by taking more care of the trees, preventing the forts from de generating, and procuring new varieties. Yet, on the whole, they are numerous and important. But we must now leave Mr. Marshall, whose work is valuable and ufeful: we truft he will continue his enquiries, and we shall receive them with pleasure.

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A Letter to the Reverend Dr. Parr, occafioned by his Re-publica

tion of Traits by Warburton and a Warburtonian. 8vo. Robson and Clarke. HOUGH we were unwilling to praise or to censure the spi.

rit by which the Editor of the Tracts' by Warburton and a Warburtonian appeared to be actuated,' in our review of that publication, vol. LXVII. p. 211, yet we find it difficult to avoid making some observations on the subject. It is always an unpleating talk to censure motives, because when they are secret ones, we combat a phantom which we have raised, and which the author may at once destroy ; and when they are avowed, we respect the candour and ingenuity which led to the confeffion, if we cannot approve of the motives assigned. Our silence on this subject has unfortunately been misinterpreted and misrepresented; but, whatever the different reasons may have been, the terrors of Dr. Parr's thundering eloquence were not among the number. We have smiled in more violent whirlwinds, and been calm amidst the flashes of brighter lightning.

The editor's correspondent is unwilling that the republication should be forgotten, or that the motives of it should be miftaken. He retorts, in effect, Dr. Parr's motto, and seems to tell him, nefcit vox miffa reverti.' He first skirmishes at a distance, and reprehends the editor for those occasional paragraphs in the newspapers, in commendation of his work, which no one mistakes for the voice of fame, who knows the influence and the means by which they are inserted. But these may be the indiscretions of friends, injudiciously begun, and injuriously continued, without the knowledge of the author ; for purchased praise is one of the most degrading libels. That the Tracts of Warburton were not admitted into the complete collection of his works, Dr. Parr scarcely blames the editor, or blames with unwillingness. The great objects of his indignation are the Tracts by a Warburtonian, tracts which have been attributed to Dr. Hurd. These are introduced by a long preface, which is the object of the Letter-writer's attack.

The first apology for the publication, noticed in this pamphlet, is that the Tracts were become scarce, a scarcity that has * fhrewdly and perversely' been imputed, not so much to the avidity of purchasers, as the management of the writers. If this shrewd or perverse imputation be for a moment admitted, the first obvious and natural interpretation is, that the writer's sentiments were changed, and he wished to conceal opinions which he had taken up, perhaps, without a careful examination. What parpose then could the republication answer? Was it, as the author contends, a compensation to doctors Jortin and

Leland :

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Leland > The compensation was already made by the manage. ment:' was it to establish their characters more firmly? A weak and insufficient attempt, when the nature of the dispute is considered, which we have examined at some length in our XVIIIth vol. p. 10, and 328; or was it, as the Leiter-writer fufpects, an attack on the author with a remote view to another publication on the controversy? We own that there is great reason to believe the last motives to be the true ones.

Whether the tracts were written by the prelate to whom, under the title of a learned critic, you have dedicated them, I know not; nor is it of any contequence to the present concern. Neither is it of any moment wheiher he acknowledge them or not. If your real object had been the defence of the Dis. Jortin and Leland, these circumstances would have been of as little consequence to your purpose as mine; fince, if defence be necessary, it is certainly fv in either case. But that I may give you all the credit you can desire, as to this matter, I am willing, for the present, to admit your evidence as to the identity of the author. Whoever he was, the tracts themselves have very confiderable merit. That on the Delicacy of Frendthip is the finest piece of irony I ever beheld, and fully justifies itfelt in the perusal; and the Letter to Dr. Leland is a matter-piece of criticisın, not unworthy the friend and vindicator of the learned bp, of G. Had the re-publication of these tracts been unattend. ed by the spleen and bluiter of your dedication ; liad they been presented with the decency of a scholar, and not dragged into view with the ferocity of a ruffian, the public (leaving you to re. concile the impropriety of voluntarily taking upon you the office of re-publication) would have gladly hailed their approach, without feeling mortified at the disgrace which attends their prefent connexion.'

But, independent of the mode of republication, these Tracts áre said to have been first condemned, and afterwards forgotten by the public. They are therefore confessedly of no importance; for how can the republication of a despicable work, in opposition to Jortin and Leland, be any sort of compensation to characters that cannot have been injured by it, since it has been condemned and has been forgotten? How can the revival of a controversy which may, in the opinion of some, detra£t from their, merit, establish their character? Has it been lately in danger?

The authors alluded to have, however, replied not in every instance with success; and they are now compensated by the republication of the works to which they could not at firft reply.

. And fo, fir, when the arguments of a theological disputanr have been cut up and diffected by the hand of a master, and with the finest tempered instruments of logic; and his cavils at the


systein of an honoured and valued friend laid bare ; the best mode of compensation, which Dr. P. can discover, for the agony which the patient has suffered, is, to repeat the operation, by re-publishing the tracts, which before performed it. This, it seems, will more effe&tually restore the exposed and lacerated nerves and museles of that fide of the controversy, than a dire& argumentative defence; which, as the fubjects were not exhausted by Jortin and Leland, you once intended to prepare for the prels.

. But surely, fir, it is an odd mode of compensation, which you have at last discovered for the reverend difputants; and such as never once entered into their own heads. They did not think that the publication of the letters was a fufficient justifica. tion of thosc, to whom they were addrefled; and, accordingly, fet themselves to work in trying to confute them. You have performed, therefore, but an aukward kind of fervice for these departed scholars, whose cause you have fo generously taken in hand. But, Nil desperandum, te duce.'

The Letter-writer goes on, and produces another passage from the dedication, in which the editor observes, that, as some of the parties are dead, and the controverfies in which they were engaged have ceased to agitate the passions of men, this republication has not the smallest tendency to low ftrife among scholars.' This passage our author animadverts on with some pleafantry and indignation : indeed, we think it can have but this fingle tendency, unless it be admitted that the bishop, being himself unwilling to engage in the controversy, has not a single scholat among his friends, or his friends are too wise not to see, that their exertions will bring forward the feeds of itrife already fown. We arë told of the editor's work which may be prepared for the press on this subject.

Many other passages are examined with the fame spirit; but perhaps we have given specimens enough of the Letter-writer's ability ; and we do not fcruple adding, that we think, with him, the republication is a mean and weak attempt to censure a respectable prelate, and a good man; a defign unworthy either of a scholar or a philosopher.

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Hortus Kewenfis; or, a Catalogue of the Plants cultivated in the

Royal Botanic Garden at Kew. By William Aiton, Gardener

to his Majesty. Three Volumes. 8vo. 1. 15. in Boards. Nicol. WHAT she prospeãt of wild luxuriant nature is to the more

fplendid and ornamental labours of the gardener, such may be considered as the difference between a Flora and a Hor.

The former contains variety and profusion: the latter what is elegant, curious, rare, and beautiful : in the one we

admire flowers,

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admire the various properties of numerous plants, designed to diversify the scene, or to aslist our wants ; in the other, a dir. crimination of beauty and selection of uncommon appearances, the result of extensive enquiries, repeated examination, and that vast comprehenfive research which an active commerce can alone aslift, or render effectual. In the Kew gardens, all that the most advantageous situation for acquiring can afford ; what. ever is within the reach of influence or of rewards may be expected to be found ; and those who compare Dr. Hill's Hortus Kewenfis with the present Catalogue, will be astonished at the amazing increase of new, curious, and valuable plants. This work, however, though it deserves the highest praises as a bo. tanical catalogue, though it contains many new plants, accu. rately discriminated, and numerous corrections in the characters and arrangements of those formerly known, is yet of importance in another view. It is the first regular work which marks the progress of English horticulture, by a particular account of the periods when each plant was introduced, so far as the most careful enquiry and most attentive examination of ancient manuscripts can ascertain them. This is a subject of cu. rious fpeculation; and, if the facts here recorded were taken out of their scientific form, and reduced to an historical one, it might form a pleasing work.

Mr, Aiton, in a very humble and diffident dedication to the king, informs us, that this work has employed the leisure moments of more than sixteen years of his life, in which it has been thought worthy the allistance of men more learned than himself-alluding, we apprehend, to the attention of the late Dr. Solander, and Mr. J. Dryander. As horticulture has been unremittingly attended to during his life, he trusts that the first fruits of his labours will be received with candour: in reality we have little doubt but they will be received with the applause which they so well merit.

In the conduct of the work, our author tells us, that the plants described in the Species Plantarum, the two Mantissəs of the elder Linnæus, are referred to, without adding any other fynonyms, than those which Jacquin, Curtis, L'Heritier, and the Flora Roslica have furnished. The Supplement of the younger Linnæus was published after the Catalogue was in part compiled; so that, in some places, bis synonyms are repeated; but afterwards the reference to the Supplement occurs in the fame manner as to the works of his father, correcting only the errors which may be discovered in that faulty publication, where much is inserted on trust, without an accurate informa, tion or anxious enquiry. Besides this work, the younger Linnxs purposed to publish a treatise on palms and liliaceous

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