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many valuable works are bv degrees neglected, which were formerly in high repute. In collections of this kind, our descendants will find the respected publications of different æras, and, perhaps, learn, that in every age something valuable may be found. To reject what was formerly done, displays as much bigotry as to value only what the ravages of time have mutilated and spared. Dr. Kippis concludes his preface with apologies for his delay, which he tells us, in the words formerly employed in the Life of Dr. Lardner, arose from the various difficulties incident to a literary undertaking; the quantity of new matter, and the large proportion, particularly, in the additions to the old lives which was necessarily his own. No farther delay is we find to be apprehended, for the proprictors are determined to call in effectual aid.
Corrigenda and Addenda to each volume are prefixed. Among there is a candid well written letter from Mrs. Walter, the widow of the reputed author of Anson’s Voyage. In the Life of Mr. Robins, by Dr. James Wilson, it is allerted that he was the compiler of this voyage; and that the narrative drawn up by Mr. Walter was little more than extracts from journals, and consequently confidered as unfit for the purpose. If the language of this voyage be compared with that of Mr. Robins' other works, no great fimilarity will be found; but Mr. Walter's being closely engaged in writing, to be able to how the sheets at fix every morning to lord Anson,' is no striking proof on the contrary fide, since it is allowed that he had also compiled a narrative. This lady adds, that she has seen Mr. Walter correct the proof sheets for the printer, which it is unlikely Mr. Walter should have done if his work were superseded, though the adds, that Mr. Robins was not at this tine in England. While we highly commend the delicacy and propriety of Mrs. Walter's conduct, and think her letter an excellent one, the will allow us to say, that we cannot consider Mr. Walter's claim, as completely established. We have mentioned the subject at some length, because we think much is said in his favour, and to give her an opportunity, if the pleases, of elucidating this subject more fully. In the other corrections and additions, we do not perceive many important circumstances. Dr. Johnson is, perhaps, too frequently brought forward, and some minute facts, if they had been added to the work, would not, perhaps, have greatly enhanced its value. There are a few additions, however, really interesting.
The new lives in this volume are those of John Collins, mathematician; W. Collins, poet; P. Collinson, naturalist, &c. J. Coneybeare, divine ; Sir Anthony Cooke's four learned daughters, viz. Mildred, lady Burleigh, Anna, lady Bacon,
Elizabeth, lady Russell, and Catherine, lady Killegrew; Jaine Cooke, navigator ; A. Ashley Cooper, third earl of Shaftsbury; Sanuel Cooper, miniature painter; J. GILBERT COOPER, miscellaneous and poetical writer ; T. CORAM, projector of the Foundling Hospital; T. CORYATTE, Traveller; G. Costard, divine; C. Cotton, miscellaneous and poetical writer; P. F. Courayer, divine; COURTEN FAMILY, chiefly merchants, but the fourth, William, a naturalist; W. Coward, medical and metaphysical writer; W. Earl Cowper, lord channe!lor of England; Sir R. Cox, lord chancellor of Ireland, and historical writer; Willaim Craig, divine; Richard Crathaw, poet; the Admirable Crichton; R. Cromwell, protector; H. Cromwell, lord lieutenant of Ireland; Samuel Croxal, divine, poetical and miscellaneous writer; Alexander Cunningham, historian; J. Lord Cutts, warrior and poetical writer; T. Chatterton, poet; A. Cruden, author of the Concordance ; and Sir J. Davies, poet, historian, and writer on law. The lives in Italics are by Dr. Towers; those in capitals seem to be by persons unknown: they have the signatures N. N. R. C N. and N. respectively. The life of Craig was written by Mr. Richardson; that of Crashaw by Mr. Hayley ; and that of Cruden by Mr. Chalmers, of Throgmorton-street.
In surveying this list, readers will be differently attracted, according as their studies or predilections have led them to the different scicnces which each author has pursued. We have gone over each, and looked for enterta nment for the mathematician, in the life of Mr. Collins; for the naturalist, in that citizen of the world, P. Collinson; and for the ladies, in Sir Anthony Cooke's learned daughters. But, in our situation, it is necessary to enlarge on what is most new, and most generally interesting. The Life of Collins and of Collinson afford little but what was before known, and the great merit of the ladies consists in their classical knowledge, by which they will not raise the envy of the present age. We shall, however, tranfcribe the Latin lines of lady Killegrew to lady Burleigh, with a request that she would use her interest with the minister, that Sir Henry Killegrew (we follow the most probable fuppofition) fhould not be sent to France : they are elegant, correct, and almost purely classical.
"Si mihi quem cupio cures Mildreda remitti,
'The life, which seems to have been written with most care, and to afford most novelty, is that of the third earl of Shafterbury. He lived at the time when the Revolution had opened the eyes of Englishmen, and taught them to regard the general rights of mankind : he studied under the direction of Locke, and afterwards in Holland, the firit late which had shaken off the fetters of despotism, with le Clerc, Bayle, &c. and had imbibed, in the writings of Plato, Xenophon, Epictetus, Arrian, and Marcus Antoninus, the love of virtue, true liberty, and a regard for the happiness of mankind. Why should we dissemble? in politics he was the enthusiast of liberty, and in morals the zealot of virtue. In the former, he respected the rights and dignity of a lawful sovereign; in the latter, he overlooked, or seemed to overlook, in his eagerness to enhance the dignity of morality, the dictates of Christianity. Yet he cannot be styled an infidel, or, uniformly, a Deilt, for he speaks of Hoadly, Tillotson, Barrow, and Chillingworth, in terms of applause or of respect. The circumstances of his life are drawn from the General Dictionary, or the Supplement to the former edition of the Biographia : in the former, tire article was written by his son.
As a writer, the earl of Shaftesbury has been highly applauded, or violently condemned: on this account the editor examines his different works with peculiar attention: to these he probably alludes in his preface, when he says, that many valuable productions, which in his youth it would have been a disgrace not to have read, are now laid aside.' Notwithstanding the scepticism of the Characteristics, we hope, for the intereits of virtue and morality, that they may live a little longer.' We wish that we could have followed the editor in the examination. It is clear, copious, and candid. He produces the various opinions which have been given of lord Shaftesbury, and, in eitimating the merits of the Characteristics, iteers the middle courie between the extremnes of censure and applause. We think him, however, favourable to the earl, though we suspect that we could occasionally find arguments to lead him to be still more favourable:
• The fate of lord Shaftesbury, he observes, as an author, may furniin useful instruction to those who build their expectations on literary fame. For a considerable time he stood in high reput tion as a polite writer, and was regarded by inany as a standard of elegant compofition. H's imitators as well as admirers were nu. merous, and he was esteemed the head of the school of the sen. tinental philosophy. Of late years he has been as much depreciated as he was heretofore applauded; and in both cases the matter has been carried to an extreme. At length, it is to
be hoped, that he will find his due place in the ranks of literature ; and that, without being extravagan ly extolled, he will continue to be read, and in fome degree to be admired. This tribute, at least, is due to his Inquiry concerning Virtue,"' and to his sc Moralists,” and in a great measure to his “ Advice to an Author."
• But whatever becomes of lord Shaftesbury's character as a writer, he was excellent as a man. This appears from every testimony that remains concerning him. “It must be owned," fays bifhop Warburton, “ that this lord had many excellent qualities, both as a man and a writer. He was temperate, challe, hon it, and a lover of his country." There is a parfuge in one of the earl of Shaftesbury's letters to Robert Moles. worth, efq. which is worthy of notice. “I am persuaded,” says his lordship, “ to think no vices will grow upon me : for in'chi, I have been ever sincere, to make myself as good as I was able, and to live for no other end." The man who could speak thus concerning himself, is entitled to the beft applause, the applause of the heart.'
The notes on Horace, communicated by Mr. Huntingford, we have looked over with great satisfaction. They breathe the true spirit of candid criticism, without licentious conjectures, or facility of admitting a corrupted text. Thefe notes are almoft exclusively on the fatires and epistles, the works of his later years, when, as Mr. Huntingford observes, with no lefs propriety than elegance, the poet folemnly renounced the more servile complaisance of his early life, and his attachment to Epicurcan principles, for the more decent and scady virtue of the Stoics.
• The poet's renunciation of Epicurcan errors, and firm though politc language with which he again asserts his freedom, inclines us to draw a veil over those years, wherein he could be induced to sacrifice his very sentiments to the opinions and practice of his patron; a conduct this, which however it may be justified on confiderations of more worldly interest, yet must it ever appear culpable on the principles of that morality, which taught him to be religned indeed to the ways of Providence, but to disdain base compliance for the sake of exterior adrantages. But the more grave, serious, and dignified sentiments of his later writings abundantly compensate the lcvity of some of his earlier odes, and the time ferving maxims inculcated in fome of his earlier fatires and epiftles. And the experience of a inan fo thoroughly versed in the manners of the world, cannot fail of being inttructive to us; for it will teach us, as we value the integrity and peace of our minds, never to relinquilli the ways of rectitude for the fallacious allurements of error, however great may be the erroluncuts which may reward a dereliction of virtuous principle.'
We cannot refift adding Mr. Hunting ford's concluding cha. racter of the earl of Shaftesbury: it is comprehensive, just, and elegant.
• What the poet was in his earlier and larter days, that the noble critic uniformly continued to be through much too short a life. His principles were always on the lide of liberty, and consequently independent, benevolent, magnanimous : his knowledge of ancient writers, particularly of the Greek, was extensive and accurate; his taste formed on the model of antiquity, was of course pure and refined. All these excel. lencies are discoverable in his edited wojks. Nor is it to be wondered at that he was so elegant a li holar, so exact a critic, so generous a philosopher, fince he de oted to liudy and me ditation those hours, which too many dill pate in the pursuit of trifing engagements, illiberal amusements, or irrational pleasures.'
We could have wished to have transcribed different specimens of the notes ; but they would lead us too far. The poet's conversion is particularly pointed out in the notes to the first epifle; and again in line 310 of the Ars Poetica ; but, while we are looking over them once more, we cannot resiił transcribing the earl's elucidation of the 19th line of the firit epistle from the ancient philosophers: it affords a proof too with how much diligence and advantage he perused these respectable sources of pure mcrality.
“Subjungere.”-vera le&tio. Vide Ciceronem in Acad.Quæst. lib. 2. 45. prope finem. " Veruntamen (inquit) video quam suaviter volup: as sensibus nostri blandiarur.' Labor ut allentiar Epicuro aut Aristippo revocat virtus vel potius reprehendit manu; pecudum illos motus effe dicit : hominem jungit Deo, &c."
• Horatius noster melius. Labor (inquit) ut affentiar So. crati, Zenopi, &c. revocat voluptas. in Aristippi et Epicuri praecepta relabor, virtutem veram defero. Fortunæ non ponto (Ut inf. v. 68.) fed fubiervio, Deo me nec jungo nec fubjunge. Majere tento (Ep. 17. V. 24.) presentibus (uti Arisuippus ipse) baud equus. Ei mibi res, non me rebus, &c. In hac ergo Epiftola pofteriorem fententiam, in illa 17 a. priorem probat. Hic fenefacns, illic nondum.
• Vide ipfa Aristippi Verba, Mores, Conatus, in Dialogo ifo Socratico Xenophontis Amox• l. 2. in initio. et inter alia αλλ' εγω τοι (εφη ο Αρισιππος) δε εις την δελειαν αυ εμαυτου τατται και Quæ verba Horatius proculdubio in animo habuit, cum fcripferit fubjungere. Sic Epictetus apud Arrian.
• Vulgatum eft Philofophie preceptum το συνταττειη νε! υπαTATTE iQuior tous nous (Vide Simpliciun in Cap. Ench. 78. et Arrian. 1. 1. c. 12.) το συναρμoσαι την αυτα βέλησιν τους γινομεη φως. Lib. 2.c. 14. Sic in Enchirid. 77. 18. Sic M. Ant. l. 4. 23. et lib. 6. 39.-Vid. fup. Sat, 2. 1. 1. v. 76. et infra Ep. 17. 24.