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precipice.' And this is a natural as well as a judicious reason for writing satire., Bad as the world is, it will grow worse, if its enormities are not exposed, - Totos pande sinus is certainly unfurl their whole extent : sinus is a plait or fold of a garment, and used in this sense particularly by Virgil. It was probably a sea-term, analogous to our reefs. The next lines seem to us greatly weakened. “Whence that rude plainness of our ancestors, which allowed them to write what they pleased, while their minds burned with indignation ; and to say what I dare not hint at.' In Mr. Madan's construction, he makes Juvenal afraid to tell the name of a burning mind. Our author's explanation of line 157 is, we think, a bappy one ; yet media arena fcems rather to limit the author's meaning to the place of combat; but the common interpretation of the criminal's making the furrow, by being forcibly dragged to the stake, is far-fetched and improbable. Deducis os deduces must be the proper reading in

view: our author, however, should have added a colon after tigellinum.

There is no reason for applying this passage, as some commentators have done, to the perfecution of the Christians under Nero; and it is not very probable, that the fanciful expresion teda lucebis in illâ, related to Nero's executions, which he supposed to have called his torches. The stake might have metaphorically that name; and a modern Frenchman might translate it, vous ferez figure à la lanterne.

We shall transcribe only a short specimen of our author's too literal translations ;

• 'The Tyrian rugs, and the female ccroma, Who knows not? or who does not see the wounds of the stake, Which flie hollowus with continual wooden-lwords, and provokes

with the shield? And fills up all her parts ; altogether a matron most worthy The Floralian trumpet ; unless the may agitate something In that breast of hers; and be prepared for the real theatre. What modesty can an helmeted woman fhew, Who deferts her sex, and loves feats of strength; yet she

herself Would not become a man : for how little is our pleasure !'

The learned reader will find the original in the sixth Satire, 1, 245 to 263.

It is imposible to mention one half of the passages which have occurred that might furnish remark, either in elucidating the satirist, where we can commend Mr. Madan, or where we differ from him. It is sufficient to have given specimens of his manner, which we have selected, either as they de erved attention, or as they supported the opinion which



we had occasion to give. Even short passages, with their artendant '

notes, are not to be comprised within narrow limits, and we could not omit those parts in which the explanation was chiefly to be found. We ought, however, to add, in extenuation of a little harthness, that it is no easy tak to tranflate Juvenal in corresponding lines. We have tried it, with very indifferent success.

Perlius, the usual attendant of Juvenal, is comprised allo by Mr. Madan in these volumes, and translated in a similar way. But this young satirift (he died at thirty) is less ardent, less impetuous, but we think more intricate than Juvenal, only in some passages which are supposed to be defignedly obscure. It is known, that a line of one of his Satires, we believe the first, ran in this manner :

· Auriculas afini Mida rex habet,' which Cornutus was afraid would be applied to Nero, and injured the sense and the tenor of the pafiage, by substituting ' quis non habet.' On the whole, the milder and more correct Persius comes nearer to Horace than to Juvenal, and disseets that folly with delicacy, which Juvenal mangles with his impetuous indignation. In many parts he inferts highly finished lines; and like Horace, in the first satire of the second book, shows, that if had not wished to reform the world he might have entertained and delighted it. There are not many passages of this kind in the satires' of Horace: we do not recolled more than two, but the polished lines, in Perlius, are numeroas. Annæus Lucanus might well say, that they are really poems.

We fufpected, from Mr. Madan's translation of this paffage (they were absolute poems”) that he meant • finished poetry ;' but the au:hor of the Pharsalia is said to have pronounced them vere esse poemata,' in the Scholiaft which show lies before us. We need not select any specimen. In the translation of Persius, Mr. Madan is in general very accurate; but this method of rendering lineam lineâ, 'verbum verbo,' though it may procure the author the title of . fidus interpres,' renders his work unplealing to general readers, while we can. not allow it to be useful in the school. Those who wish, with little trouble, to recover their knowledge of Latin, or to be acquainted with some of the customs of Rome in her de. generate days, will find, in these volumes, some advantageous afidance.


Silva Critica : five in Auctores Sacros Profanosque Commentarius Philologus : concinnavit Gilbertus Wakefield, A. B. 8vo.

35. 6d. in boards. Deighton. We have wandered

with our anthor, in many cheerless moments, for this volume has been long before us, through his pleasing forest, where every tree afforded a place of rest, an agreeable prospect and interesting amusement. In these rambles, we sometimes found our author little severe ; he appeared occasionally fancifal; and, in some inftarces, to have possessed a truly Bentleian refinement, yet we seldom left one fpot, without feeling the mind improved and entertained : even the harth collisions of our author would elicit sparks.

Sacred criticism is blended, in this commentary, with remarks on the classical writers, and each is elucidated by conjectural emendations, drawn from history, analogy, and an attention to the scope and tenour of the author. We have faid, that we do not greatly approve of the emendation applied to the sacred writings; but, while they are conducted with so much caution and moderation, as Mr. Wakefield dif. plays, we cannot object to it. We shall extract a few specimens of our author's corrections; and we shall select those which are generally interesting and which may furnish some obfervations.

It is not to give an onfavourable impression of Mr. Wakefield's work, that in the firit instance, we are compelled to differ from him; but it is the first part, suited to our limits, that we had marked for a quotation. • Virg. An. ix. 435. edit. Malvicii.

Purpureus veluti cùm flos fuccifus aratro
Languefiit moriens; Lassove papavera collo

Demijere caput, pluviâ cùm fortè gravantur. «Varietas lectionis eit in hoc loco-layo-laxo -lapfo: quarum nulla quidèin videtur contemnenda, et temerè repudianda ; nullam autem genuinam judico. Dedit fcilicèt límatiffimus poeta, et Græcarum elcgantiarum fervantiffimus,

LÆSOvo papavera collo. • Pari venustate nofter vii. 808.

Illa vel intactre segetis per fumma volaret

Gramina, nec teneras cursu L. ÆSISSET ariftas. • Et eadem reftitutio mihi prorsùs necessaria videtur ad Æn. vi. 310. ne bis idem dicendi ignominiâ notetur Maro:

Quam multa in filvis autumni frigore prima

LÆS A cadunt folia. · Et Ovid. Paft. v. 321.

Florebant oleæ ; venti nocuere protervi ;

Florebant fegetes ; grandine LÆSA Ceres.' This is one of the few pallages, where Mr. Wakefield's


conje&ure is not happy. Laffo, the word in the best manufcripts, is fingularly descriptive of the corn.poppy, bent down with sain—'a wearied neck and all the collateral paf sages, adduced, do not appear to us applicable. In the first infance, lægfret ariftas, the meaning is not "bent' but injured the beards. Varro, in his description of the different parts of an ear of corn (Re Rafica, lib. i. cap. 48) gives this interpretation of ariftæ, and Virgil was too good a naturalift not to be precise in the use of terms, or to suppose that what was brittle might be bent. In the second pafage the force of the fimile requires us to read lapfa and not Izsa, for the leaves are • fallen' not injured. The passage from Ovid is also of no great importance for the fame reason ; but, if it was more in point, we should be unwilling to correct Virgil, on the authority of fo careless a writer as Ovid. : Hæc præferunt et coid. et libb. editi ad 1 Tim. vi, 19.

Αποθησαυριζονίας έαυλους θεμελιων καλον εις το μελλον, να επιλαCωνίαι της αιωνια ζωης.

• Confentiunt huic lectioni vetusta versiones, adeò ut ab ipfis Evangelii incunabulis inoleviffe videtur fædiffima depravatio. Fidentèr fententiam pronunciamus: non enim Paulum Tar/cnfem tam negligentèr, tam nullo judicio, perlegimus, quin benè compertum habeamus, non adeò incurioluin orationis fuifle suæ, ut his fordibus paginas fanctiffimas inquinaverit. Vctat hoc tum nota hominis elegantia, tum verum de illo magoi rhetoris judicium. Quis igitur, cui vel taniillum venuitatis inerat, unquàm dixit-Sopesov a to Incauers? Di&um planè portentosum est, et furcâ pro meritis expellendum. Olim conjeceram, cum ulnis matris meæ Cantabrigiæ primùm geftaΓer-Αποθησαυριζολας έαυλος ΘΕΜΑ ΛΙΛΝ ΚΑΛΟΝ : quam conje&turam ob id pofteà rejeci, quòd non fùm mihi occurrerat vocis Druc vel unicum exemplum ; fed uberior lectio feeit, ut in gratiam redirem cum emendatione omnium veritfimâ felicifimàque. Locum inveni planè gemellum apud Tobit iv. 9. φuem procul dubio refpexit Paulus :-μη φοβα ποιείν ελεημοσύνην. ΘΕΜΑ γαρ ΑΓΑΘΟΝ ΘΗΣΑΥΡΙΖΕΙΣ σεαυθω εις ημεραν αναγκης.

• Vocem Serce habet Etym. M. et Hefycaius, cujus camèn glossæ his locis vix conveniunt: et Sirachides xxx. 18. Et Ignatius in Epift. ad Polycarp. Sect. 2. et alii. Sed ad Apoftoli mentem illuftrandam maximo usui eft Plutarchi locus v. ii. p. 116.

«Ου δει δυσφορειν, εαν α εχρησαν ημιν θεοι πεG- ολιγον, ταυλα απαλυσιν· εδη γαρ οι τραπεζιαι-απαιθεμενοι τα ΘΕΜΑΤΑ---. Exoμεν γαρ το ζην, ώσπες ΠΑΡΑΚΑΤΑΘΕΜΕΝΟΙΣ θεοις.

Ut optimè conveniunt in ethnico Stuala et wagaxalaDeusvois, iraer in facro fcriptore θεμα et παρακαταθηκην. Νοn igitur nos critici arguendi fumus impietatis, aut etiàm temeritatis, si eluendis quòque fanctorum librorum maculis manum peritan cauramque adhibeamus.

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mortalia cuneta peribunt ; Nedùm ser monum ftet bonos et gratia vivax.' We have selected this section, as a question merely philological, where we think conjectural emendation may be safely allowed. Mr. Wakefield has undoubtedly found in Tobit, the passage (we perceive it also referred to by Dr. Mill) 19 which the apoitle alludes. Though to lay up a foundation in a metaphorical sense, may not be absurd in English, yet anoOno avpisaur Depenoor is completely so, in the Greek.

The following fection we shall transcribe without a comment.

• Efai. vi. 2. Και Σεραφίμ ειςηκεισαν κυκλω αυλα, εξ στερυγες τα ένι, και εξ αθερυγες το ένα και ταις μον δυσι καλεκαλυπloν το προσωπον LXX.

• Hæ fcilicèt duæ priores alæ fuerunt insalior, desub auribus provenientes in faciem. Hinc Pindarus emendandus eft:

• Ardeas TIT E POIE IN STA Wi-
Φεικονίας αμφω πορφυρεοις : Ρyth. iv. Ep. 8.

Ta, axoar, whia : Helych.-Eadem medicinâ fanandus eft Apoll. Rhod. i. 221.

αμι Δ' ΕΝ ΩΤΟΙΣ Κρααις εξ υπαλοιο και αυχενο- ευθα και ενθα

Küavezu doveovlo pela avomnow sosição. • Hoc probat Orph. Arg. 219. Ed. Steph.

• Cι δη και ΤΑΡΣΟΙΣΙΝ ΥΠΟΥΑΤΟΣ επιληνιο

Ζηλης Καλαις. “v. Sil. It. vii. 257. et ibi Drakenborchium.

• Hoc errore se cum aliis ludificari pasl'us eft poetarum doctiffimus et excelfiffimus, Paradis ameffe fcriptor, L. v. v, 273.

A Seraph wing'd: fix Wings he wore, to jhade
His Lineaments divine ; the Pair, that clad
EACH SHOULDER broad, came mantling o'er bis Breast
With regal Ornament.'

In the emendations of Horace, we think our author difa covers the refinements of Bentley and Warburton. Many of our readers will probably not agree with Mr. Wakefield in the following remarks.

• Horat. Od. jj. 3. 13.
Hìc vina, et`unguenta, et niniùm breves

Flores amænæ FERRE JUBE rosa : • i. e. fi omncs, quotquot funt, interpretes audire velisjube FERRI: quod prorsùs respuit et aversatur ipfa proprietas linguæ ratio. Nec tamen verba, ut nunc exhibentur, aliam admitiunt interpretationem. Ergò librarii sunt in culpâ ; nisi fortassè poeta nofter, luminus & maxime curiofus difcendi ar. tisex, nelciret Latinè loqui : quod nemo dixerit.

Epitheton porio_AMOENÆ rojavah! quàm friget; nec judiciuin Flacci vel tantillum fapit.-i'uerum fcilicet ejus pro


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