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corated in great finery; a custom distinguished by the natives under the name of Gul Reazee, or the scattering of roses. This commonly continues a week or ten days, during which time the guests are entertained with music, dancing; coffee, sherbet, &c.

The tomb of the admired Hafiz, one of the most celebrated Persian poets, stands about two miles distant from Shirauz, towards the north-east. Here the late vakeel, Kerim Khan, bas erected an elegant ivan, or hall, with apartments adjoining. This building is executed in the same lyle as the Dewan Khana, nor has any coft been spared to make it agreeable. It stands in the middle of a large garden: in front of the apartments is a stone reservoir, in the centre of which is a fountain. In the garden are many cypress-trees of extraordinary size and beauty, as well as of great antiquity, which our author imagines to be the same as those described by fir John Chardin, who visited this place in the last century. Under the shade of these trees is the tomb of Hafiz. It is of fine white marble from Tauris, eight feet in length, and four in breadth. This was built by the order of Kerim Khan, and covers the original one. On the top and sides of the tomb are fele&t pieces from the poet's own works, beautifully cut in the Perfian Nustalack character. During the fpring and summer season the inhabitants resort to this place, and amuse them. selves with smoaking, playing at chefs, and other games, and reading the works of Hafiz; an elegane copy of which is kept upon the tomb for the purpose. They venerate this poet al. most to adoration, never speaking of him but in terms of rapture and enthusiasm : and the principal youth of the city show their respect for his memory, by making at his tomb plentiful libations of the delicious wine of Shirauz. Close by the gar. den runs the stream of Rocknabad, much celebrated in the works of Hafiz. It is now dwindled into a small rivulet; but the water is clear and sweet, and is held in great admiration by the modern Persians, who ascribe to it medicinal qualities; but with what jufice our author does not deter. mine.

A little to the northward of Hafiz's tomb,' is a magnificent building, called by the Persians Heft Tun, or the Seven Bo. dies, on account of seven dervilhes, or religious men, who coming from a great distance to reside in this country, took up their abode on the spot where the building is erected, and there remained till they all died, each burying the other succeflively, until the only survivor, who was interred by the neighbours upon the spot; and in metaory of which event Kerim Khan has erected a beautiful hall, with adjoining apart3


ments. Over the doors of this hall are placed the portraits of the two celebrated poets Hafize and Sadi, done at full length; that of Hafiz habited in the old Persian dress. He is painted with a frein rosy complexion, and a large pair of whis. kers, and appears to be about fix and thirty years of age. The other of Sheick Sadi is the figure of a venerable old man, with a long beard turned white by age, dressed in long flowing robes, in his right hand holding a small crooked ivory staff, and in the other a charger of incense. This poet, who was of the religious order, has likewise a tomb about two miles distant, and it is visited in the same manner as that of Hafiz.

Our author informs us that the Persians, with respect to outward behaviour, are certainly the Parifians of the East. While a haughty and infolenc demeanour peculiarly marks the character of the Turkish nation towards foreigners and Christians, the behaviour of the Persians would, on the contrary, do honour to the most civilized nations. They are kind, courteous, and obliging to all ftrangers; and are fond of enquiring after the manners and customs of Europe, very readily affording, in return, any information respecting their own country. The practice of hospitality is with them so important a point, that a man thinks himself highly honoured if you will enter his house and partake of what the family affords; while going out of a house, without smoking a calean, or taking any other refreshment, is deemed, in Perfia, a high affront.

The Perlians, in their conversation, use extravagant and hyperbolical compliments on the most trifling accasions; but freedom of conversation is a thing totally unknown amongst them; that walls have ears,' being proverbially in the mouth of every one. They have universally a fixed belief in the efficacy of charms, omens, talismans, and other superstitions. They are, of all people, the most addicted to the idea of fortunate or auspicious days and hours. They never undertake a journey without first consulting a book of omens, each chapter of which begins with a particular letter of the alphabet, which is deemed fortunate or. inauspicious; and should they unluckily pitch upon one of the latter, the journey mut be delayed until a more favourable opportunity. Entering a new house, the putting on of a new garment, with numberless other common and trifling occurtences, are determined by motions equally absurd and frivolous. Those among them who are in good circumstances geperally send for an astrologer, at the birth of a child, in order to calculate its horoscope with the utmost exactaess.


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Our author appears to have observed the manners and cuftoms of the Persians with great attention; and, from what we have formerly read of this people, in the works of different travellers, we think he deseribes them faithfully.

From Shirauz Ms. Franklin made an excusfion to view the celebrated rains of Persepolis, where he arrived at the end of two days. This ancient palace is fituated on a rising ground, and commands a view of the extensive plain of Merdalht. The mountain Rehumut encircles the building in the form of an amphitheatre. The ascent to the columns is by a grand itair-case of blue stone, containing one hundred and four steps. The first object that itrikes the beholder on his entrance are two portals of stone, which our author judges to be about fifty feet in height each; the sides are embellished with two sphinxes of an iminense fize, dressed out with a profufion of bead work, and, contrary to the usual method, they are represented landing. On the sides above are inscriptions in an ancient character, the meaning of which po perfon hitherto has been able to decypher.

Another flight of fteps leads to the grand hall of columns. The fides of this fair-cale are ornamented with a variety of figures in basso relievo. Most of them have vessels in their hands: here and there a camel appears, and at other times a kind of triumphal car, made after the Roman fashion. There are likewise feveral led horses, oxen and rams, which intervene and diversify the procession. At the head of the ftair-cafe is another basso relievo, representing a lion seizing a bull; and, close to this, are other inscriptions in ancient characters. At this place is the entrance to what was fora merly a most magnificent hall: the natives have given it the name of Chehul Minar, or forty pillars; and though this name be often used to express the whole of the building, it is more particularly appropriated to this part of it. Fifteen of the columns yet remain entire ; they are from seventy to eighty feet in height, and are masterly pieces of masonry. Their pedeftals are curiously worked, and appear little injured by time. The shafts are enfuted up to the top, and the capitals are adorned with a profufion of fret-work.

Proceeding eastward from this hall, we arrive at the remains of a large square building, which is entered through a door of granite. Most of the doors and windows of this apartment are still standing; they are of black marble and polished like a mirror. On the fides of the doors, at the entrance, are bas-reliefs of two figures at full length: they represent a man in the attitude of stabbing a goat. With one hand be seizes hold of the animal by the horn, and with the



other thrufts a dagger into his belly. One of the goat's feet relts upon the breas of the man, and the other upon his right. arm. This device is common throughout the palace. Over, another door of the fame apartment, is a representation of two men at full length: behind them ftands a domestic, holda ing a spread umbrella; they are supported by large round ftaffs, appear to be in years, have long beards, and a profusion of bair upon their heads.

At the south-west entrance of this apartment are two large. pillars of stone, upon which are carved four figures. They are dressed in long garments, and hold in their hands spears ten feet in length. At this entrance, likewise, the remains of a stair-case of blue stone are fill visible. Vast numbers of broken pieces of pillars, shafts, and capitals, are scattered over a considerable extent of ground, some of them of such enormous fize that they excite the astonishment of the be. holder. Indeed, all these noble ruins indicate the former grandeur of this palace, which was truly worthy of being the residence of a magnificent sovereign.

There are yet other remains of this magnificent fabric de. scribed by our author ; but we muft now, however reluctanto, ly, take leave of the fubject, and only observe, that the materials of which the palace is composed, are chiefly hard blue fone; but the doors and windows of the apartments are all of black marble, exquisitely polished. We should now conclude the account of Persepolis, but are tempted to give our readers the few following observations on the Hall of Pillars.

• This hall appears to have been detached from the rest of the palace, and to have had a communication with the other parts by hollow galleries of fione. By the pedestals of the pillars, which I counted very exactly, the hall seems originally to have confifted of nine diftinct rows of columns, each containing fix; mak. ing consequently, in all, fifty-four. The fifteen that remain, are from seventy to eighiy feet in height; the diameter at the base is twelve feet, at the distance between cach column twens ty-two. By the position of the front pillars, the ball appeare to have been open towards the plain; but four of the pillars, facing the mountain, and which are at some distance from the reft, teem to have been intended for a portico, or entrance from the caft; they are also of a different style of architecture. The materials of the columns are a mixed fort of red stone gra. bular.

• The hall, situated on an eminence, and commanding an exten five view of the plain of Merdasht, is strikingly grand, and conveys to the beholder the idea of ap Hall of Audience of a powerful and warlike monarch.'

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Mr. Francklin has so bjoined to his travels an account of the transactions in Perfia, from the death of Nadir Shah lo, the year 1788. The narrative is written with perspicuity, and fills up a chasm which has hitherto remained in the hifa torical detail of that ancient and celebrated kingdom ; where the splendour of its former monarchy is sunk into all the horrors of barbarism, fucceffive usurpations, and almost continual civil war. We cannot conclude without acknowledging that we have received much pleasure from the perusal of this agreeable work.

Letters chiefly from India ; containing an Account of the Military

Transactions on the coast of Malabar, during ihe late War. Together with a short Description of the Religion, Manners, and Cuftoms of the Inhabitants of Hindoftan. By John Le Couleur, Esq. Translated from the French. 8vo. 6s. Boards.

Murray, IT T appears from the Translator's preface, that these Letters

are the production of a young officer, a native of the island of Jersey, who served in India during the late war. To many of the transactions related in the present volume, he was himself an eye-witness; and of the reft he was enabled, from being on the ipot, to collect the fullest and most authentic information.

The first letter is dated from St. Jago, in April 1781, and contains an account of the soil, produce, and government of that ifand, which is one of the principal Cape de Verd Islands, and poffefsed by the Portuguese. In the second, the author gives an account of the naval action at St. Jago, between commodore Johnstone and M. de Suffrein, and is very free in his animadversions on the conduct of the former of those commanders. . The transaction in Saldina-bay forms the subject of the next letter, in which the author continues to blame the conduct of the commodore, particularly for his return to Europe after the capture of the four French Indiamen; but does justice to the fignal bravery displayed by Johnstone on this occafion.

. Four of the lips were preserved from the general confla. gration, but we could not succeed in saving the fifth. There was every reason to fear that the fames from her would commun nicate to the others, and we durft not approach her on account of the powder she had on board. Our commodore, sensibly couched at the prospect of so great a treasure escaping, was for this time deaf to the voice of prudence, and daringly braved death to snatch from the sea the immense riches ready to be swallowed up. He flew like lightning, and ruled into the midst of the flames; he towed off the vessel with his own hands, encouraged the failors, and made altonishing exertions. His temerity


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