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son in `justifying the ways of God to man.' The objections to prayer are fairly stated, and, few will doubt, satisfactorily answered; while the pleasures arising from devotion are described in a manner that will convince every one in what a high degree they were felt by the author, and muit excite an earneft defire of experiencing the same fenfibility. After all, however, it is perhaps to be lamented that, þoch in this sermon and that we have before mentioned, the example of Christ, the love and obligations of Chriftians to him, and the effects of his merits and interceffion, are not more in lifted upon. The enforcement of duties for the example, and for the sake of that beloved master who went about doing good, and who laid down bis lifi for bis friends, is the strongest and most engaging tie a minirter can-feel; as the command of our Lord, and his promise of acceptance, is the most powerful motive and encouragement to prayer. We mean not to censure the author, but only to express a wish that he had dwelt more on a subject, which if enlarged on would have thrown additional luftre on the whole, and which would have derived fingular beauty from his hands. Of the foundness of his faith there is every reason to be con. vinced from various passages in these Sermons, from his sentiments at the close of his life, and from his excellent prayer at the end of this discourse, part of which we on this account fball transcribe:

• Teach me to understand clearly, to believe firmly, to value jusly, and comply fincerely with that last and brightest revelation thou hast given me by Jesus Chrift: give me a jutt sense of the unmericed, unfollicited, and wonderful friendihip of the eternal Son of God: who though he was rich, yet for the sake of apoftate fons of men, became poor, and was made flesh, and suffered and died, that he might enlighten their darkened underftandings, purify their corrupted hearts, exalt their debased natures, deliver them from the punishments due unto their fius, fet open the gates of immortality before them, and conduct them into the presence of their God. Teach me to hearken to his divine instructions; to copy after his spotless example: to approach to thee by him, as my great mediator, and to expect the forgiveness of my lins, on the terms marked out in his Gospel! Let the serious consideration of my need of such a Saviour, beget and preserve in me the deepest sense of my own vaworthinets; and let the confideration of thy love and mercy in appointing him to be the Saviour of men, inspire me with the humble and modest confidence of being restored by him to the enjoyment of thy favour and friendthip.

The number of these Sermons in all is thirty-two. They are written on important and useful subjects; four of them contain directions for youth, and were preached in the college-cha.


pe! fel of Glasgow. We venture to recommend them as compoStions evidently flowing from the heart. Whoever seads them will greatly admire the amiableness of mind and fervent piety of the author, and it will be his own fault if he is not improved. We cannot give a better idea of Dr. Leechman's manner of writing than in his own words, respecting the duty of minifters:

• The inward feelings of a good heart have a natural eloquence accompanying them, which can never be equalled by laboured and Itudied ornament, The heart, really and justly moved, never fails to dictate a language plain and easy, full of natural and continued vigour, which has nothing in it foft, nothing languishing. All is nervous and strong, and does not lo much pleate the ear as filland ravish the soul.'

in Hiftorical Developement of the prefent Political Constitution of

the Germanic Empire. By John Stephen Pütter. Translated from the German, with Notes, and a comparative View of the Revsnues, Population, Forces, &c. of the respective Territories, from the Statistical Tables lately published at Berlin. By JoFab Dornford, of Lincoln's Inn, LL. D.

3 Vols. 8vo. 75. Boards. Payne and Son. IT. T appears that the original of this work was undertaken at

the express defire of our gracious queen, whose request was communicated to professor Pütter in May, 1785; and, in the month of March following the production was published in Germany; when her majetty, we are told, was so well satisfied with the treatise, that she condescended to testify her approbatïon of it in a letter to the author. We are glad to find, on a perusal of the work, that we can most readily acquiesce in the juftness of her majesty's favourable opinion; as the author has developed the subject of his investigation with equal perfpicuity and discernment.

The first book contains an account of the state of Germany from the earliest times, until the decline of the Carlovingian sace, in the year 888. From the remoteft period to which hiftorical records ascend, Germany appears to have been inliabited by a variety of nations, which, though sprung from the fame origin, had each of them its own regulations, and enjoyed, exclusively, the most perfect liberty and independence. The Greek and Roman historians, to whom we are indebted for the earliest accounts, mention the names of more than fifty German nations, fome of whom, to this day, still retain the same posfetions and designations. Originally, however, those various tribes had no fixed habitations in towns and villages, bat led a wandering life, in feparate hordes, whose only objects were

hunting hunting and pasture. The prodigious emigrations of the Gers mans, in the fifth century, made way for a succellion of new inhabitants, from the shores of the Baltic, and the remoteft borders of Afia. Germany, 'with respect to the origin of its first inhabitants, is divided by our author into two claffes, the inha. bitants of one of which were not originally of German, but of Venedic extraction; as Mecklenburg, Pomerania, Wagria, Lauenburg, Brandenburg, Misnia, Lusatia, Bohemia, Moravia and since the seventh century, Stiria, Carinthia, and Carniola, The other class consists of the districts the inhabitants of which were originally Germans; as Lower Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, and the greater part of Weftphalia.

The countries fituated on the left, shore of the Rhine, and on the right of the Danube, which, if we reckon from the time of Julius and Auguftus Cæfar, continued almost foar hundred years under Roman government, were in the fifth century fully established as a province of that nation. They therefore universally adopted the Roman institucions, which, gradually spreading over the neighbouring countries, introduced amongst the Franks, Alemans, Burgundians, and others, the use of agriculture, the management of vineyards, and various improvements both of Roman science and polity.

That the Christian religion in the firft ages, when it was still at a distance from the throne, and rather suffered, at different times, the moft dreadful persecution, was fpread by the Roman colonies and legions as far as the Rhine and Danube ; and that during the reign of Conftantine the Great, after his conversion, there were Christian communities in the cities on the Rhine and Danube, are, our author juftly observes, facts not to be difputed; but the attempt to connect the list of the first archbishops and bishops of the fees at present established in those countries with the time of the apostles, and continue them uninterrupedly from the time of Conftantine, can only arise from the fictions of the tenth century ; in which the enlightened writers among the Catholics themselves no longer piace any degree of credit. There are a few circumstances, however, in the fate of religion of the first centuries, without which the ecclefiaftical conftitution of the subsequent periods cannot well be understood.

Though, in the apoftolical times, the teacher and inspector of a church were considered as equivalent, and only distinguished from the deacons or ministers, who were to perform the public service ; yet, at the time when Christianity first came into Germany, it was usual for every considerable city, as well as cer. tain districts in the country, where the Christian communities had their particular priests, to have likewise a bishop, with whose rank a precedency was soon afterwards connected. Our author


explains concisely, and in a perspicuous manner, the importan; consequences which resulted from this institution.

• As it frequently happened that several bishops, in the fame country, were in correspondence with each other, or held a general consultation on matters which were interciting to the community at large; as even at the times of perfocution the Christians had reason to keep together, and support each other as well by their counsel as actions ; so, before the time of ConItanrine, principally in the eastern part of his dominions, it was usual for several bishops to meet at different times, and hold a consultation on the common concerns of their churches, or assemblies of the church, as they were called; (fynods or coun. cilsy fometiines of an extensive, and fometimes a narrower diIriat.

• Constantine had scarcely made con efsion of the Christian religion, before such assemblies of the church were publicly countenanced. An assembly of this kind was held, in the year 3!4, at Arles, in Provence, and in 345 at Nicea; and both of these were frequented by the bishops of the countries of the Rhine and Danube. We inay trace the various effects of these institutions froin those times; and their influence has evidently operated in the fucceeding ages, and in some measure even to the present day.

• To these assemblies none were admitted but the bishops ; and in the decrees they made, the churches willingly acuicfced. The decrees came afterwards of themselves in ute, as obligatory rules. Appeal was made to thc example inentioned in the 15th chapter of the Acts of the Apotles, where a meeting occurs of the Apostles and the Elders, in whose places the billiops imagined they succeeded; but they forgot that this very decree was not made by the Apostles and Elders alone, but approved of by the church in general (A&s xv, 22.), and in the name of the Apostles, Elders, and Brethren (Acts xv. 23). The bishops began now to attribute the force of an obligatory law to their decices; not only with respect to their own subordinate priests and ministers, but all the members of the community; in short, the church in general. The bishops jointly considered themselves as the representatives of the whole church. Others, who were neither bishops nor ministers, were obliged to be satisfied with what was publicly declared a decree of the assembly. Thus arole the great distinction between the spiritual and temporal estates, as they were called ; or more concisely, the prieithood and laity: so that, in affairs whịch concerned religion and the church, the laity had no further concern, but, when the clergy thought proper to ordain any thing, reserved to themselves only the honour of obeying. From hence it fot- lo ved, that the Jaity were always reinoved further from the knowledge of things, and the clergy, on the contrary, mono. polized whatever had the appearance of learqing, and enforced their pinciples with the hope or loss of cternal salvation. Thus it may be conceived, how the spiritual estate was soon enabled to acquire such an ascendency over the temporal, that the equilibrium, so neceffary to the perfection and welfare of every commonwealth with respect to the temporal estate, was irrecoverably loft.'

Not only the common priests and other ministers were confidered as subordinate to the bishops, but when several bishops of the same country met, they regulated the assembly and their own precedency according to the political division of the provinces; so that the bishops who belonged to one province, when they found it necessary to hold a particular provincial fyned, yielded precedency to the bishop whose see was in the capital city of the country. Hence rose, in process of time, the order of precedency amongft the bishops, as now established in the Germanic empire.

Our author next proceeds to trace the origin and progress of the Frankish monarchy. This monarchy owed its foundation to Clovis, the son of Childeric, who, in the year 486, unex. pectedly took the command of a part of the nation of the Franks. His first undertaking was an expedition against the Romans, whom he defeated in the neighbourhood of Soiffons. From this time he took poffeffion, as a conqueft acquired by his sword, of that part of Gaul which the Visigoths and Burgundians had left to the Romans ; and the new monarchy which, after his decease, was inherited by his fons and pofterity, has continued to the present time, only divided between the two crowns of France and Germany.

The original limits of this new monarchy established by the Franks, comprehended in the beginning partly the district of France which formed the remainder of Roman Gaul, and part-, Iy those countries which Clovis, and that part of the nation of the Franks which was subject to him, wese in possession of, in Germany and in the Netherlands. But these borders, by the fuccessful enterprises of Clovis and his sons were extended so far as to include the whole of the present country of France, and a considerable part of Germany. From this period is commonly dated the origin of the feudal system which has since had to much influence on the constitution of every state in Europe.

The frequent partition of the country amongst the grandsons of Clovis, was soon productive of pernicious quarrels and civil wars, which arose during his reign, and that of his fucceffors, when assassinations, poisonings, and various cruel outrages, Kain this part of the history. Upwards of an hundred years etapfed without the occurrence of any new conquest, extension of the empire, or any other glorious action of the Merovingian


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