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the late Mr. Kendal, who lived at the Golden-lion, Charingcross.

Dr. Burney's opinion of Dr. Croft, we think too anfa. vourable ; his works are one of the great supports of cathedral performance. The engraving of his anthems, however, is so far from being 'neat or accurate,' that the performance of them is almolt impracticable, from the parts not being scored one under the other.

Dr. Green does not stand so high in the historian's estimation as in that of the world in general. Whatever faults he might have, he certainly had also the merit of introducing something like taste into church-music; and there is an ele. gance in some of his songs, which will preserve them, when the compofitions of some of the great Germans and Italians, recorded in this work, will be sunk info nothing.

Of the late Dr. Boyce we are told that, with all his reverence for Handel, he was one of the few church composers, who neither pillaged nor servilely imitated him. “There is an original sterling merit,' Dr. Burney observes, 'in his productions, founded as much on the study of our own old marters, as on the beit models of other countries, that gives to all his works a peculiar itamp and character of his own for. strength, clearness, and facility, without any mixture of styles or extraneous and heterogeneous ornaments.' We fully agree in this opinion, except to far as regards facility, which surely was not one of Dr. Boyce's excellencies. With some account of Mr. Stanley and Dr. Nares, the third volume concludes We hope soon to examine the fourth, and our general remarks Thall be reserved for the conclusion of these necessarily extend. ed articles.

The Progriljes, and public Processions, of Queen Elizabeth. By

John Nichols, F.S. A. In Two Volumes. 410. 31. 35. in
Boards, Printed for the Editor.
THE age of queen Elizabeth was in many respects a prof-

perous and happy one. The dignity, the splendour, and the firmness of the Tudors dazzled the public eye, and made the different powers of Europe tremble. At a period when the sights of mankind were little understood, and when the common people had scarcely escaped from the slavery of villenage, which was not yet in effect abolished; when the nation had began to breathe after the wars between the houses of York and Lancaster, public security and private ease were blellings which hid from their view the irregular exertions of prerogative, or the private opprefions of purveyance. - When the vast


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czertions of Philip were frustrated, no power could disturb the happiness of the queen and kingdom: the reign was spent in easy security or splendid festivity. Elizabeth, aware of the doubts which had, during the reign of her filter, been entertained of her legitimacy, kept every question of her right or of the succession at a distance: the courted those whom she ruled with the severity of her father; and flattered, when she thought her power might be opposed and controlled. Civil liberty was undoubtedly little thought of, and imperfe&tly enjoyed; bat, at the same time, it must be allowed that Elizabeth studied the interests of the kingdom, and even the happiness of her people, more successfully than any of her predecessors of the same family. In the time of tranquillity, the fplendor of Elizabeth, and the pomp displayed in her various progresies through her dominions, raised a degree of emulation between the different artists and the poets of England. The more elegant arts profited greatly by these events; and though, while taste was little cultivated, they were loft in heavy magnificence, or encumbered by the harsh pedantry of the period, yet each felt the genial influence of royal munificence. the golden age of literature and chivalry: it was the cradle of science.

The indefatigable editor of these volumes, instigated, perhaps, by the views we have juit stated, has collected the various descriptions of queen Elizabeth's processions, from printed works, unpublished MSS. and communications of different kinds. His work and notes contain many facts relating to this! period, which are sometimes interesting, and sometimes only of importance because they are old. This general error of indiscriminate collection pervades very commonly the publications of Mr. Nichols, and he loses the praise of discretely blotting. In the volumes before us, he literally begins ab ovo, not from the birth of Elizabeth, but her mother's marriage, which cannot easily be arranged, except on the Shandean system, with bar · progreffes,' or procesions. The real progresses of the queen began in 1559, and were continued till the year before her death, which happened in 1603. These are described often with great prolixity, and illustrated by different explanatory notes. The plates are taken from ancient drawings and engravings : they are consequently executed with fidelity rather than elegance; fidelity, however, without the necessary attention to perspective. The best of these is the frontispiece, , reprefenting a yeoman of the guards attending the queen on her progress; and the moft curious is an old map of London, where Covent Garden joins the country, and Spital Fields is at a distance from any buildings. VOL. LXIX. Jan. 1790.



It is imposible to give any particular account of procesions, where the order of arrangement and symbols of offices are the chief objects; of entertainments, where heathen deities speak verses full of over-stı ained pedantry and fanciful allusions; of, perfons, whose genealogies and inter marriages form the most important subjects of consideration. As a picture of the manners of the age, this representation is curious ; to an antiquary it is important; and, while we clofe our account of these volumes, we ought to add, that we mean not by our conciseness to infinuate that the work is useless; but it is of consequence only to a few; and they would not be contented with a lort analyfis, which must necessarily convey but an imperfect picture of the whole. We shall transcribe, however, two letters from the queen, which were to us very interesting ; and we shall add a short elegy on Elizabeth, as a specimen of the Atyle of poetry, plentifully interspersed in these volumes : • A Letter from Queen ELIZABETH to Lady Drury, in 1589,,

upon the Death of her Husband. • BEE well ware, my Befle, you strive not with devine ordinaunce, nor grudge at irrimediable harmes, leste you offend the highest Lord, and no whitre amend the married hap. Heape not your haimes where helpe ther is none; but since you may not that you would, will that you can enjoye with comforte, a king for his power, and a queene for her love, who loves not now to protect you when your case requires care, and minds not to omitte what ever may be best for you and yours. • Your most loving careful sovraigne, E. R.' · Queen ELIZABETH to Lady PAGET, on the Death of her

Daughter, Lady CROMPTON.

• (Birch MSS. 4160.23.) “ CALL to mind, good Kate, how hardly we princes can brook of crolling of our commands; how yreful wyll the hiest power be (may you be sure) when murmerings thall be made of his pleasing it will? Let Nature therefore not hurt herself, but give plase to the giver. Though this lefon be from a sely vicar, yet it is fent from a loving foveraine."


Brittain's Lachiimæ.

• (Donation MSS. 4712.)
• WEEPE little isle, and for thy mistris death

Swim in a double fea of brackish water.
Wcepe little world; weepe for great Elizabeth,

Daughter of warre, for Mars himself begate her,
Mother of peace, for the bore the latter.
She was, and is, what can there mose be said,
In earth the first, in heaven the second maid.'


Meral and Philosophical Efiimates of the State and Faculties of

Man; and of the Nature and Sources of Human Happiness.
A Series of Didattic Lectures, in Four Volumes 8vo. 165.

Boards. White.
WE have read these Lectures, in which the author efi-

mates the state and faculties of man, to draw from thence the most falutary instructions, respecting the nature and source of his happiness, with great pleasure and probably profit. We found, in them, much real knowledge, a sound judgment, as well as a rational and solid piety; and we can freely recommend them as containing the best lessons for io. suring a temporal and eternal happiness.

In the firt lecture, on the dignity of man, we suspected that the author had gone on too fast. We always opposed that gloomy cheerless philosophy, which depressed the dignity of human nature, leliened her powers, and depreciated her varied faculties ; but we were not ready to believe in the perfect freedom of man, to suppose the powers of the soul so ađive and acute, as to discriminate the thoughts from the principle which thinks; to be able to expatiate beyond the confines of its tenement of clay, and to distinguish always truth from error. Yet, when we had examined the explanations, made a little allowance for the honest ardor with which the author appeared to be animated, and, above all, favý the excellent use which he made of his positions, we were led to pardon, if not always implicitly to believe, his tenets. The second fermon, where he points out the conduct, which is in opposition to the dignity of man; and the third, by what means Christianity restores it, are admirable moral lectures, where morality and religion go hand in hand, and where their dictates are in forced from the preceding confiderations in the strongest manner.

A man aćts inconsistently with the lofty understanding and reaSon of his nature : he acis against his own dignity, debates and degíades himself whenever he does not cultivate his nderstanding and his reason, when he does not use them to those purposes for which the Creator bestowed them on him ; when truth and error, appearance and reality, are things indifferent to him, when he is contented with Imaller or more trifling koowledge and pursuits, than such as he might acquire and pursue by his abilities, his facultie:, his fituarion, by the peculiar means and opportunities he has or may have to that end. Where is then your dignity, O human creatures ! How does your nobility appear, if you avoid that silence and retirement which is fó favourable, and generally fo indispensably neceffary to continued reflection ; you who b-numb your fpirit

by an unceasing round of dissipation, distraction, and tumuttúous pleaf re; whu fel’om attain to any clear and intimate confciousnefs of yourlelies and your condition ; who feldoin exercite yourselves in c nfideration or reflection, turn your thoughts conttan:ly more without than within ; exist more by the opinions and judị ements of others, than live in that seli-sentiment which is the necessary concomitant of habitual meditation ? li here is your dignity, how does you nobility appear, you who reit merely in what you see, and hear, and feel, who 1o feljom inquire into the causes and grounds, and views of things ; and, like the beatts of the field, are occupied in enjoying the pres nt moments, forgerful of the past, and losing light of the futurc? Where is your dignity, how dues your robility appear? you who find it so difficult to raise yourielves above visible and earthly things, who fo foon feel weary and disgusted of any serious reflection on God and religion, on duty and virtue, on death and immortality, on the vocation and the important concerns of man ; to whom rational picty, that nobicit elevation of the human mind, is so little agreeable and pleasant, and are ntore delighted with what affeas and flatte's the senses, than with any communications with the world of spirits, and with God, the Father of aH spirits ;'

We are forry that we have not room for the whole of this very able and spirited address.

Christianity restores the dignity of man, by placing our conduct towards God in the fullest light; by showing our relation to God, and displaying his anxious care and watchful providence: it shows what the nature of man is capable of, and points out a future ftate, railing us above the creatures of a moment, to the prospects of a happy immortality. Our author's peroration, when from these premises he exhorts man :o be a Christian, may be read with satisfaction and conviction.

The other estimates in the first volume are on the value of human life, of health, riches, honour, sensual and spiritual flensures, and on devotion. As we cannot follow the author particularly, on cach of these subjects, we shall extract some of his obfervations on sensual pleasures.

Innocent. fenfual pleasures con ribute likewise to the more closely connefiing mankind with cach o her, and the improve. ment of focial life. Social pleasure draws all within the iphere of its operation to it; brings every part of it nearer together, All mutual y give and receive, interchangeably bestow and enjoy; every man contributes more or less to the pleasures of the reit; and this must render them all sentible of iheir reciprocat dependency, and their mutual wants, and thereby make them more valuable and more dear to each other. • Innocent fenfual pleasure, and the focial enjoyment of it,


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