« PreviousContinue »
and destroy the poppy ; and it is therefore as evident, that it is utierly impossible, from the nature of the two plants, that onc fhould be plowed up to fow the other.' The author
, proceeds to give a distinct account of the Indian government, both under the usurpation of the Mahomedan conquerors, and the lenient rule of Great Britain. It is impossible for us, at present, to follow him through the minote, nest of the detail, but we have the pleasure to observe, thas he conducts the narrative with the greatest appearance, nor only of knowledge, but fidelity; and that, according to the clear and confiltent representation he has given, the happiest effects have sesulted to the inhabitants of India, fince they came under the mild and prudent administration of this coun. try.
Philosophical Tranfa&ions of the Royal Society of London. Vol.
LXXIX. for the Year 1789. Part II. 410. 75. 6d. fewed.
L. Davis. THE THE first article in this second part of the Transactions was
communicated by Dr. Priestley, who tells us, that it is the beginning of his enquiries on the doctrine of phlogiston, with which these • experiments on the phlogistication of spirit of nitre' has some connection. It has been doubted whether heat or light is the cause of those orange-coloured fumes, which arise from pale spirit of nitre after being exposed to the fire; but Dr. Priestley has shown that it is heat, though he has not proved that light will not have the same effects. We lately mentioned, that the smoaking spirit of nitre has been changed into the colourlefs fpirit by excluding the light for some years; and, as it was kept in a close cupboard, very near which there was a constant fire, during the winter-months, the alteration of heat could not be considerable. Independent of this cause, fpirit of wine, inclosed in a small tube, and fuffered to fall gradually into the pale nitrous acid, produces the opposite effect : each experiment proves that phlogiiton, which is certainly connected with both heat and light, has some fhare in the change. It appeared, however, from Dr. Priestley's particular experiments, that the vapour over the spirit was first changed, and the liquor only altered in consequence of it; but this must be accounted for from the heat or light more immediately affecting the air, as more near to its own ftate, than a Auid; since in our experiment the spirit of wine first changed the acid. Again, our author found that some dephlogisticated air was let loose during the change, and some phlogisticated air absorbed ; though in very different proportions. The latter was only that contained in the atmos
pheric air necessarily refting, afret every precaution had been taken to exclude it, on the acid ; and the former appeared to be a real production, either from the decompofition of the acid, or some other cause. We own that this fact, notwithstanding Dr. Priestley's explanation, seems to bear hard against the doc. trine of phlogiston. The dephlogisticated air formed rushes out turbid and white; but tzis is the constant appearance of condensed or rapidly formed air, as is seen in the discharge of the wind-gun, or other common experiments. Dr. Prieltley afterwards answers fome objections, which have been made to his former paper on the decomposition of water.
Art. XXIII. Experiments on the Transmission of the Va. pour of Acids through an hot earthen Tube, and further Observations relating to Phlogiston. By the Rev. Joseph Priestley, LL.D.F.R.S. - We turn to the end of the volume, to connect this paper with the former, as their subjects are so nearly fimilar. Dr. Priestley tells us, that, in his subsequent experiments, he has confirmed those in the former communication, and extended them. He finds similar effects from heat in phlogisticating the vitriolic acid, which he thinks in this and the former instance should be styled super-phlogistication, as in their colourless state the phlogiston appears to be in its proper proportion. The vitriolic acid, however, gives out air work than comnion air ; and, as he had formerly found vitriolic acid air injure common air, he supposed it might be owing to this cause : when he previously separated the acid air, that which followed it was of the purest kind. The same result occurred in subjecting spirit of nitre to the same experiment : in each instance there was an escape of acid vapour, and Dr. Priestley seems inclined to explain the result, by supposing that, in both cases, the acids were saturated with phlogiston, but, on the efcape of the acid vapour, this principle was predominant. The acid liquor collected, when distilled, afforded no air, though that, from the spirit of nitrė, towards the end of the experiment, gave out a little; but from other experiments, Dr. Priestley thinks that the vitriolic acid contains the proper element of pure air, particularly as its vapour, with inflammable, forms fixed air. The marine acid was not changed by these processes. Distilled vinegar, in this way, afforded air, twothirds of which was fixed, and the rest infiammable. Alkaline air is converted into inflammable air by this process, as well as by the electrical spark, but by no means in fo great a degrec.
Dr. Priestley next pursues the subject of phlogiston, and shows that the fixed air found after calcining iron in dephlogisticated air cannot come from the plumbago of the iron, and that therefore the iron must have parted with one principle, as well as
have received another. In the experiment with Proffian blue alsó, Dr. Prieitiey thinks it unaccountable that so much de. phlogisticated air should disappear, unless that it contributed, with the phlogiston of the calx, to the production of fixed air, The Prussian blue he confiders as a phlogisticated calx, and only so far an acid, as it contains some fixed air already formed.
Art. XII. Observations on a Comet. In a Letter from William Herschel, LL.D.F.R. S. to Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. P.R.S.- The most remarkable circumstance attending this comet was, that it had no nucleus; but this is not a singular appearance, though not a common one.
Art. XIII. Indications of Spring, by Robert Marham, Esq. F. R. S. of Stratton, in Norfolk, Latitude 52° 45': These different appearances of various indications of spring, from that of 1736, a remarkably early one, to the year 1789; cannot be abridged: they are contained in three tables, and the difference is obvious from inspection only.
Art. XIV. An Account of a Monster of the human Species, in two Letters ; one from Baron Reichel to Sir Joseph Banks, Bart, and the other from Mr. James Anderson to Baron Reichel. Communicated by Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. P. R. S.This is the most fingular monster that we ever remember to have heard or read of. Peruntaloo is now thirteen years of age, born at Popelpahdoo, seventy miles west of Masulipatnam; and measures four feet six inches and a half in height. To the cartilago enfiformiś of this boy is affixed the lower extremities of a child, with the pelvis connected to the cartilage by the fym. physis of thc pubis. The legs and thighs of this adventitious child appear extenuated; the anus is imperforated, but the urine is voided naturally, at the will of his more perfect brother; and the penis is occasionally erected. About the lower part of the loins of the femi-monster are two bladders, into which Peruntaloo can occasionally force air, and they have evidently a communication with his lungs. The saç of the stomach is common to both, but the alimentary canal, for the reason assigned, is evidently peculiar to the more perfect boy. The legs and feet of the semi-monster are colder than the rest, and the volition of Peruntaloo seems not to extend to them. We cannot, at this time engage in a discullion on the subject, or Thow the opposition of this fact to the most generally received systems. We own, that it decidedly oppofes the opinions on this subject that we have had occasion to give; and we must al. low that there are either monstrous germs, or that nerves will unite so as to admit of conveying sensation, and even voluntary motion : the former opinion is moit tenable, Art. XV. A supplementary Letter on the Identity of the
Species Species of the Dog, Wolf, and Jackal; from John Hunter, F. R. S. addressed to Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. P. R. S. Mr. Hunter now informs us that the bitch, produced by the wolf and the dog, produced puppies from a connection with a dog. The time of gestation was the usual one of the canine race. We hope this ferocious family will not be conti. nued.
Art. XVI. Abstract of a Register of the Barometer, Thermometer, and Rain, at Lyndon in Rutland; by Thomas Barker, Esq. Also of the Rain in Hampshire and Surrey. Communicated by Thomas White, Esq. F. R. S.--The mean heat of April was 5c, nearly : the leait quantity of rain, recorded in this register, is what fell at Fyfield in Hampshire, 16.86, at least two inches more than fell in London from the Society's register.
Art. XVII. On the Method of corresponding Values, &c. By Edward Waring, M. D. F. R. S. and Lucalian Professor of Machematics at Cambridge.
Art. XVIII. On the Resolution of attractive Powers. By Edward Waring, M.D.F.R.S. and Lucasian Professor of Mathe-. inatics at Cambridge. These memoirs are wholly incapable of abridgement.
Art. XIX. Experiments on the Congelation of Quicksilver in England. By Mr. Richard Walker; in a Letter to Henry Cavendish, Esq. F. R. S. – Mr. Walker was probably the first who has succeeded in freezing quicksilver in England ; and he has obtained, by various experiments, so great a power of producing cold, that he can congeal this Auid metal in the hottest season, without the assistance of snow or ice. The description of the frozen mercury, by Dr. Thomson, we shall transcribe :
. When the freezing mixture was supposed to have produced its effc&t, the bulb which was completely filled was taken out, and broken on a flat lione by a modera e stroke or two with an iron hammer. This bulb was eleven or twelve lines in diameter.
• The solid mercury was separated into several fharp and brilJiant fragments, some of which bore handling for a short time before they returned to a Huid form. One mass, larger than the rest, confisting of nearly one-third of the whole ball, af. forded the beau iful appearance of Hat places coverging towards a center. Each of these plates was about a line in breadth at the external surface of the ball, becoming narrower as it shot inwards. These faccts lay in very different planes, as is common in the fracture of any crystallized ball, whether of a' brittle metal or of the carths, as in balls or calcareous stalactite. The solid brittle mercury in the prsent intance bore a very exact resemblance, both in colour and plated itructure, to fulpburated antimony, and especially to the radiated specimena from Auvergne, before they are at all tarnished.
Josiead of a solid center to this ball, it seemed as if there had been a central cavity, of about two lines in diameter, a converable portion of which was evident in the fragment jus described, at that part to which she radii converged. I is in. deed pollible, that this may have been merely the receptacle of tomc
part of the mercury rema ning fluid at the center. The hollow within wa- thining, but its edges were neither soft por mouldering; on the contrary, they were sharp and well defired: nor was the brilliancy of the radii attributable to any exudation of nercury as troin an amalgam.
• In the two imalier bulbs, which were only half filled, the inercury preserved its usual lufire on the furface in contact with the glass, as well as on that surface which it had acquired in becoining folid. The latter was occupied by a conical depression, the gradations of which were marked by concenrric lines.
One of the chemispheres wus truck with a hammer, as in the fourner initance, but was rather facicned and cruthed than broken. The other, on bing divided with a sharp chiffel, ftewed a metallic fplendour on its cut surface, but not equal. ling the polith of a globule of fluid mercury."
Fragments of solid mercury, thrown into liquid mercury, funk with confiderable celerity.
Phosphorated natron produces more cold than vitriolated natron; but this, like the other neutrals, loses this property, if deprived of the water of crystallization. The mercury on congelation did not fall so low as in the Siberian experiment; and this was found owing to the formation of an external shell of folid mercury by the sudden application of cold. • By a trial made with great accuracy, I find, that even the
I mixture compoled of diluted vitriolic acid and vitrioiared na. tron is adequate to any use ul purpose that may be required in the holiest country; for, by adding eleven parts of the falt in fine powder to eight paris of the vitriolic acid dilured with an equal weight of water, the thermometer sunk from £oo, the mean tein. perature of the hottest climate, and to which these materiais were purposely heated before mixing, to rather below 20°.
• Vitriolated natron, added to the marine acid undiluied, produces very nearly as great a degree of cold as when mixed with the diluted nitrous acid. At the temperature of 50°, two parts of the acid, require three parts of the sale in fine powder, which will link the thermometer to 0°; and if three parts of a mixed powder, containing equal parts of muriated ammonia and nitrated kali, be added afterwards, the cold of the mixture will be increased a few degrees more.
• The frigorific mixture above described, compofed of phofphorated natron and nitrated ammonia diffolved in the diluted nitrous acid, being the most powerful, it will probably be found inolt convenient for freezing mercury, when snow is not to be procured. The materials for this purpose may be