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in the next chapter; and in the sixth, he treats of the veget. able acids procured by such a degree of heat, as to destroy the union of the ingredients, or by the action of nitrous acid. In this chapter our author explains the near relation of all the vegetable acids, and refers them, as we have formerly done, to combinations of vital and infiammable air; in other words, to fixed air. The acids produced from sugar, &c. by diftillation, differ in their properties from those feparated by means of the nitrous acid, as may be expected from the empyreumatic oil neceffarily combined with them. The acid of camphor is little known.
• The acid of camphor is produced by distilling the nitrous acid eight fucceflive times frain camphor. It is of a concreto crystalline form, of a bitter taite, and reddens the tinctures of violers and turnfole. It differs from the acid of sugar in not separating lime from the marine acid. With vegetable alkali ic forms a file in regular hexagons ; with inineral alkal', a fait in irregular cytials; with volatile alkali, priimatic or reelleforined crystals; and with magnefia, a pulverulent folubi It diffolves several metallic substances. But subtequent enquiries are wanting to eitablish the peculiar nature and properties of this acid.'
The most destructive distillation of vegetable substances is next described, with the products, of which charcoal is one of the most curious. This substance gives phlogiiton instead of receiving it; and our author juftly observes, that if there are any metallic substances more combustible than charcoal, they must remain unknown to us, as we have no means of reducing them. The ultimate ingredient, a refractory earth, may, in his opinion, be probably a phosphorated lime.
Fermentation, the various kinds of vinous liquors, and the properties of ardent spirit, are next described; and the confi. deration of vegetable substances is concluded by the explanation of æthers of different kinds, the various proceffes for making them, and the nature as well as the combinations of the acetous acid. Each of the acids, from our author's acfount, seem capable of forming an ætherial fluid.
The animal substances and their analyas conclude the work, and in the Appendix are various useful tables. On the whole, this volume contains a valuable abstract of the science, so far. as it is hitherto understood; and we can safely recoin mend it, not only as an useful compendium for the younger students, but as a fyftem, to ascertain the present state of chemistry, and for the service of the proficienis, to which they may refer on those parts of the science which are lefs known and less readily recoi. 4 cea
The Antiquities of Scotland. By Francis Grose, Esq. F. A. S. Folio. Large Paper 31. 45. Small 21. 35. 6d. Boards. Hooper.
R. Grose's Antiquities of England and Wales having been
received with general approbation by the public, it must afford great pleasure to all readers of taste, to know that he has 'continued his industrious researches into Scotland. After all the havoc committed by the English, under the two first Edwards in particular, in pursuit of an ideal superiority, there ftill exist in that country a number of ancient castles which have escaped the fury of civil commotions, and hitherto more or less resisted the dilapidations of time. An account of those venerable buildings, by reviving the remembrance of diftant years, and of celebrated characters and transactions, must always be pleas. ing to the imagination, especially when accompanied, as in the work before us, with accurate and beautiful plates. Confirmed in this opinion, we shall proceed with alacrity to give our readers a concise detail of this interesting volume.
Mr. Grose begins with Edinburghshire, or Mid-Lothian, where, deservedly at the head of the antiquities of Scotland, stands Edinburgh-Castle on a rock, the area of which measures seven acres. It is elevated 294 feet above the level of the sea, and accesible only on the eastern fide, all the others being nearly perpendicular. Our author juftly observes, that a fituation like this must have been occupied as a Itrong-hold from the earliest times, though history does not record the different for. treffes which have been conitructed on it. In the first account extant of a fortress at this place, the rock is by Boetius called, the Hill of Agnes ; whence some have inferred that the town of Edinburgh did not at that time exift, or was not then of sufficient consequence to give name to the spot. Were the supposition well founded, that the Agnes just now mentioned was the faint of that name, it would carry the antiquity of the fortress no farther back than the Christian æra. Long after this period, according to Fordon, the fortress was called the Virgin's Castle, from the daughters of the Pi&tish kings and chiefs being educated and kept there as a place of safety in thofe barbarous times. By others, the origin of this appellation is derived from a nunnery, said to have been established at this place before the foundation of Holyrood-abbey. From its height it was also styled Castrum Alatum, or the Winged Calle.
Mr. Grose afterwards recites a yariety of historical facts re lative to this castle, which has often been the scene of memorable transactions. One of those mentioned is the following:
During the content for the crown between Bruce and Baliol, this castle was, A, D. 1296 besieged and taken by the English,
and remained in their hands near twenty years; but was, in 1313, recovered by fir Thomas Randolph, earl of Murray; when king Robert caused it and the other fortrefles recovered from the English to be demolished, that they might not again be accu. pied by them in case of future incursions. It was in ruins in the year 1336, when it served for the retreat of part of the count of Namure's forces, defeated by the earl of Murray, who held it but one day. King Edward 111. on his return from Perth in his way to England, visited Edinburgh, and gave or. ders for the rebuilding of this caftle, in which he placed a trong garrifon; it was nevertheless, in 1341, surprised by William Douglas, who, for that purpose, made use of the following fratagem : Douglas, with three other gentlemen, waited on the governor. One of them pretending to be an English merchant, informed him he had for sale on board a vessel then just arrived in the Forth, a cargo of wine, strong-beer, and biscuit exquiGtely spiced; at the same time producing as a sample, a bottle of wine, and another of beer, The governor tafting and approving of them, agreed for the purchase of the whole, which the feigned captain sequested he might deliver very early the next morning, in order to avoid interruption from the Scots. He came accordingly at the time appointed, attended by a dozen armed followers disguised in the habit of failors ; and the gates being opened for their reception, they contrived just in the entrance to overturn a carriage in which the provisions were supposed to be loaded, thereby preventing them from being fuddenly hug. They then killed the porter and sentries ; and blowing a horn as a signal, Douglas, who with a band of armed men had lain concealed near the castle, rushed in and joined their companions, A sharp conflict ensued, in which most of the garrison being Nain, the castle was recovered for the Scots, who about the fame time had also driven the English entirely out of Scotland.'
The historical anecdotes are succeeded by an accurate de fcription of the castle, accompanied with several views which are taken from the most advantageous situations in every quarter.
The next object of the author's attention is the abbey of Holyrood - house. This was founded by king David I. in the year 1128, for canons regular of St. Augustine, to whom he gave large endowments as well as privileges with an extensive jorisdiâion. By the munificence of that prince and succeed
& ing fovereigns, this abbey was deemed the moft opulent religious foundation in Scotland. The church belonging to this abbey, and which had been originally parochial, was set apart hy Charles the Second as a chapel royal. It appears to have been a magnificent ftructure ; but by some misconduct in re. pairing it, the roof, with a great part of the walls, feli on the ircond of December 1768. In this chapel a chrone was ere&t. ed for the forereign, and twelve stalls for the knights of the order of the Thifle. In an adjoining vault lay the bodies of James V. queen Margaret, and some others. Since the year 1776, the head of the queen, which was then entire, and, according to our author, even beautiful, with the kull of Darn. ley, has been stolen. But the thigh bones of the latter fill semain, and are proofs of the vaftness of his stature.
The abbey of Holyrood-house was converted into a royal palace by James V. who, in the year 1528, erected upon the spot a new building with a circular tower at each angle. This edifice was burnt by the English in the minority of queen Mary; but was foon after rebuilt and augmented much beyond its present dimensions. Great part of the structure have ing heen burnt by Cromwell's soldiers, it was rebuilt in its present form in 1674, from a design made by fir William Bruce, a celebrated architect of that time. It is a handsome fone building, nearly square, meafuring two hundred and thirty feet from north to south, but not quite so much from east to west. It is decorated with piazzas and spacious walks. The west front confifts of two lofty double towers, joined by a beautiful low building, adorned with a double balofradę above, in the middle, where there is a magnificent portico, with large stone columns, which support a cupola in form of an imperial crown : beneath is a clock Over the porch, at the entrance, are the royal arms of Scotland, as borne before the Union. The other three fides of the square are lofty and noble.
The great stair-case and state roonis correspond in point of grandeur to the rest of the building. The gallery on the north lide is one hundred and fifty feet in length, by twenty-seven and one half in breadth ; its height eighteen feet. The walls of this gallery are adorned with one hundred and twenty por traits of the kings of Scotland, nineteen of which are whole lengths. Many of the portraits of the early kings are ideal ; some of the modern ones are said to have been copied from other pictures. They were all painted by a Flemish artist named De Wit, who was brought over for that purpose by king James VII. when duke of York.
From the abbey of Holyrood-house we are conducted to Hesiot's hospital; a magnificent edifice, founded by George He. riot, goldsmith to king James I. of England. This person was the son of a goldsmith of Edinburgh of the same name. On his marriage with the daughter of a merchant in 1986, bis paternal fortune, added to the portion of his wife, amount, ed to two hundred and fourteen pounds sterling. With this small beginning, and another portion of three hundred and thirty-three pounds with a second wife, he, by his industry
and economy, accumulated fifty thousand pounds sterling, at that time a prodigious sum. Dying without any legitimate children in 1624, after leaving confiderable legacies to two natural daughters, he bequeathed the remainder of his fortune to the town council and ministers of Edinburgh, in trust, for building an hospital for the maintenance and education of indigent boys, the fons of burgesles of that city. According to different records and other authentic memorials, this rehdue amounted to 23,6251. 1os. 3 d. and not to 43,6081. 115. 3d. as affirmed by Maitland.
The plan of this building is faid to have been drawn by Inigo Jones. The governors began the work in July 1628; but the pablic commotions which took place in 1639, for fome time interrupted the progress. It was renewed in 1642; and finished in the year 1650, at the expence of thirty thoufand pounds, which was far more than the original receipt. This increase was the produce of the interest, at that time gewerally ten per cent.
When Cromwell took poffeffion of Edinburgh after the bat. ile of Dunbar, he converted this edifice into a military hospital; and it continued to be appropriated to that use, until the year 1658, when general Monck, who then commanded the English forces, removed them, on the governor's providing them another hospital.
On April 11th, 1659, this house was opened for the purpose prescribed by the founder, when thirty boys were admitted. In 1763 the number was increased to one hundred and forty; but at the time of our author's visit to the North, there were only one hundred and ten. The revenues of this hospital confift of a real estate of about 1800l. per annum. The income, however, being corn rents, and depending on the price of grain, is liable to fome Auctuacion.
In this hospital the boys are instructed in reading, writing, arithmetic, and the Latin congue : fuch as prefer a course of academical learning, have annuities of ten pounds per annutta each for four years. Others are put out to trades, and bave cach thirty pounds given with them as an apprentice fee.
The building consists of a square, each side of which meafures one hundred and fixty-two feet, leaving in the middle an area ninety-four feet each way. This court is paved with fquare ftones, and has a well in the centre. The north and cast fides are decorated with piazzas, and a well fix feet and one quarter in breadth. On the north fide of the square, and fecond ftory, is an effigy of the founder, George Heriot, cut in ftone and painted; which the boys, on the first Monday in June, ornament with lowers, and keep the day, as a festival