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(Insert from the New York Times OP-ED Friday, April 24, 1992—A35.)

IRAQ'S BOMB, CHIP BY CHIP The U.S. Commerce Department licensed the following strategic American exports for Saddam Hussein's atomic weapon programs between 1985 and 1990. Virtually all of the items were shipped to Iraq; all are useful for making atomic bombs or long-range missiles. United Nations inspectors in Iraq are still trying to find most of them. The list is based on Commerce Department export licensing records; the dollar amount of each transaction is as claimed by the exporting company. It was compiled by Gary Milhollin, a law professor at the University of Wisconsin and director of the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control, and Diana Edensword, a research analyst at the project.

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ATOMIC BOMB BUILDERS Sales to: Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission, the main atomic research laboratory; Badr and Daura sites, where bomb fuel was made; Al Qaaaa site, where detonators were made. Canberra Elektronik: computers for measuring gamma rays and fast neutrons $30,000 Cerberus Ltd.: computers $18,181 Hewlett Packard: computers; electronic testing, calibration and graphics equipment-$25,000 International Computer Systems: computers useful for graphic design of atomic bombs and missiles $1,600,000 Perkin-Elmer: computers and instruments useful for quality control of bomb fuels $280,000 TI Coating Inc.: equipment for coating metal parts, useful for bomb production $373,708


Sales to: Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization, which ran the atomic bomb, missile and chemical weapon factories; Nassr state enterprise, where equipment for enriching atomic bomb fuel was made; Salah Al Din site, where electronic equipment for missiles and atomic bombs was made; Ministry of Defense, which oversaw missile and atomic bomb development. Axel Electronics: capacitors $84,000 BDM Corporation: computers; computer-assisted design equipment-$52,000 Canberra Elektronik: computers for computer-assisted design $21,552 Carl Zeiss: microcomputers for mapping_$104,545 Consarc Corporation: computers to run machine tools capable of manufacturing atomic bomb parts (this sale was stopped by Presidential order in June 1990 $525,550 Data General Corporation: computers for mapping-$324,000 Gerber Systems: computers to run machine tools capable of manufacturing atomic bomb and missile parts $367,428 Hewlett Packard: computers for making molds; frequency synthesizers and other equipment useful for operating secured military communications systems $1,045,500 Honeywell Inc.: computers $353,333 International Computer Systems: computers for manufacturing, tool design and graphics $4,497,700 International Computers Ltd.: computers $687,994 Leybold Vacuum Systems: computer controlled welder used by Iraqis to produce centrifuges for making atomic bomb fuel-$1,400,000 Lummus Crest: Radio spectrum analyzers; design computers; computers for factories producing mustard gas ingredients $250,000 Rockwell Collins International: equipment for navigation, directional finding, radar communications or airborne communications $ 127,558 Sackman Associates: computers and instruments capable of analyzing metals and powders for atomic bomb and missile manufacture $60,000 Siemens Corporation: computers and instruments capable of analyzing metals and powders for atomic bomb and missile manufacture_$78,000 Spectra Physics: lasers; detection and tracking equipment for lasers $19,000 Unisys Corporation: computers $2,600,000 Wild Magnavox Satellite Survey: computers for processing satellite images that are useful for military mapping and surveillance $270,000 Zeta Laboratories: quartz crystals for military radar $1,105,000


Sales to: Saad 16, the main missile research site; State Organization for Tech-
nical Industry, the procurement organization for missile sites that bought most
Scud missile parts and equipment.
BDM Corporation: computers; superconducting electronics $29,405
Carl Schenck: computers $10,228
EZ Logic Data: computers $27,800
Finnigan MAT: computers that U.N. inspectors believe monitored uranium enrich-
ment for atomic bomb fuel- $483,000
Hewlett Packard: electronic testing equipment; computers; frequency synthesizers;
radio spectrum analyzers $599,257
International Computer Systems: computers $1,375,000
International Imaging Systems: computers for processing satellite data; infrared
equipment capable of aerial reconaissance and military surveillance $688,600
Lummus Crest: computers to aid factory design-$44,320
Perkin-Elmer: computers $24,560
Scientific Atlanta: equipment for producing radar antennas $820,000

Semetex Corporation: computers$5,155,781
Spectral Data Corporation: satellite data processing equipment-$26,880
Tektronix: high-speed electronics useful in developing atomic bombs and missiles;
radio spectrum analyzers for developing microwave equipment_$102,000
Thermo Jarrell Ash Corporation: computers for testing materials_$350,898
Unisys Corporation: computers for production control_$7,796
Veeco Instruments Inc.: computers for factory design-$4,640
Wiltron Company: equipment for making radar antennas $49,510

(Insert from the New York Times, The Week in Review, Sunday, July 18, 1993– E5.)

IRAQ'S PURCHASES IN THE A-BOMB SUPERMARKET The Number of Deals The Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control has compiled a list of all the publicly known deals in which Iraq bought technology and equipment for its nuclear and missile programs before the Persian Gulf war in 1991. Some purchases were made from brokers rather than directly from the manufacturer. A deal can mean construction of an entire factory, or supplying the machine tools or training to operate it. The vast majority of these deals were approved by or made through the governments.

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Breakdown of Iraq's purchases, weighted for importance to its nuclear and missile programs, as estimated by the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control. One example: although France had only six transactions with the Iraqis, one was to build the Osirak nuclear reactor, which Israel destroyed by bombing in 1981

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(Source on all charts: Gary Milhollin and Diana L. Edensword, Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control.)

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