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IRAQ: THE SNARE OF INSPECTIONS
nceal, the nonconfrontational model was of far ss benefit.)
In the present instance, however, a policy of oiding confrontation will be dangerous in the exeme. Inspections will then be aimed only at monoring what is already known rather than at earching aggressively for what is still hidden. Moreover, the very failure to find anything new vill feed the demand that the embargo against Iraq be lifted without the goal of inspections-namely, lisarmament-ever being achieved. The price to be paid will be all the higher in view of the elementary fact that, since the day inspections began in 1991, Iraq has consistently tried to defeat them.
But that brings us to the heart of the matter. What is it that inspections are designed to do? They are designed to verify that a country's declarations about a weapon program are honest and
complete. And that sort of verification is indeed a feasible goal for an inspection team: to look at sites and equipment and see whether the official story about their use is accurate. To do this effectively, inspectors can rely both on scientific principles and on information gained through intelligence-gathering. It is a different proposition altogether to go ranging about a country in search of things that have been deliberately concealed; that is a task with no beginning and no end.
In short, without a full and coherent description of the entire Iraqi weapon program, inspectors can never verify that it has been eliminated. The truth must come first, and it can come only from the Iraqis themselves. What the world needs is an Iraqi government that will stop lying and surrender those programs. That is hardly likely to happen as long as Saddam Hussein remains in power.
[Insert from the New York Times OP-ED Friday, April 24, 1992-A35.]
IRAQ'S BOMB, CHIP BY CHIP
The U.S. Commerce Department licensed the following strategic American exports for Saddam Hussein's atomic weapon programs between 1985 and 1990. Virtually all of the items were shipped to Iraq; all are useful for making atomic bombs or long-range missiles. United Nations inspectors in Iraq are still trying to find most of them. The list is based on Commerce Department export licensing records; the dollar amount of each transaction is as claimed by the exporting company. It was compiled by Gary Milhollin, a law professor at the University of Wisconsin and director of the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control, and Diana Edensword, a research analyst at the project.
ATOMIC BOMB BUILDERS
Sales to: Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission, the main atomic research laboratory; Badr and Daura sites, where bomb fuel was made; Al Qaaaa site, where detonators were made.
Canberra Elektronik: computers for measuring gamma rays and fast neutrons— $30,000
Cerberus Ltd.: computers-$18,181
Hewlett Packard: computers; electronic testing, calibration and graphics equipment-$25,000
International Computer Systems: computers useful for graphic design of atomic bombs and missiles $1,600,000
Perkin-Elmer: computers and instruments useful for quality control of bomb fuels $280,000
TI Coating Inc.: equipment for coating metal parts, useful for bomb production$373,708
XTCM:C 3CMB AND MISSILE BUILDERS
Sales o Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization, which ran the atomic bomo, missie and memesi weapon factores: Naser state enterprise, where equipment or enriching atomic bomo fiel was made; Salah Al Din site, where slectronic erupment or missiles and atomic bombs was made; Ministry of Defense, which oversaw sale and some como fevelopment.
Axel Electronics spactors $84,30€
BDM Corporation: computers, computer-assisted design equipment $52,000
Carl Zeiss microcomputers or napping $104.345
Cansare Corporation: computers to un machine tools capable of manufacturing
atomic bomo parts this sale was stopped by Presidential order in June 1990)
Daca General Corporation: computers or mapping $324,000
Gerber Systems computers on machine is capable of manufacturing atomic bome and missie pars $367,428
Hewlett Packard computers ir making noids: frequency synthesizers and other equipment useful for operang securet muitary communications systems $1,045.500
Honeywell Inc.: computers $363.333
International Computer Systems computers for manufacturing, tool design and graphics $4,497,700′′
International Computers Ltd: computers $687 994
Leybold Vacuum Systems: computer contrailed weider used by Iraqis to produce centringes for making acomic como mei-$1,400,000
Lamines Crest: Radio spectrum analyzers, design computers; computers for factories producing mustard gas ingredients $250,000
Rockwell Collins International equipment for navigation, directional finding, radar communications or airborne communications $17568
Sackman Associatest computers and instruments capable of analysing metals and powders for atomic bomb and missile manufacture $60.000
Siemens Corporation: computers and instruments capable of analyzing metals and powders for atomic bomb and missile manufacture $78.000
Spectra Physics: lasers; detection and tracking equipment for lasers $19,000
Wild Magnavox Satellite Survey: computers for processing satellite images that are useful for military mapping and surveillance $270,000
Zeta Laboratories: quartz crystals for military radar $1,106,000
Sales to: Saad 16, the main missile research site: State Organization for Technical Industry, the procurement organization for missile sites that bought most Scud missile parts and equipment.
BDM Corporation: computers; superconducting electronics $29,406
Carl Schenck: computers $10.228
EZ Logic Data: computers $27,800
Finnigan MAT: computers that UN inspectors believe monitored uranium enrichment for atomic bomb fuel-$433,000
Hewlett Packard: electronic testing equipment, computers; frequency synthesizers; radio spectrum analyzers $699,257
International Computer Systems: computers $1,375,000
International Imaging Systems: computers for processing satellite data; infrared equipment capable of aerial reconaissance and military surveillance $688,000 Lummus Crest: computers to aid factory design- $44,320
Perkin-Elmer: computers $24,560
Scientific Atlanta: equipment for producing radar antennas $820,000