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[Insert from the New York Times OP-ED Friday, April 24, 1992—A35.]

IRAQ'S BOMB, CHIP BY CHIP

The U.S. Commerce Department licensed the following strategic American exports for Saddam Hussein's atomic weapon programs between 1986 and 1990. Virtually all of the items were shipped to Iraq; all are useful for making atomic bombs or long-range missiles. United Nations inspectors in Iraq are still trying to find most of them. The list is based on Commerce Department export licensing records; the dollar amount of each transaction is as claimed by the exporting company. It was compiled by Gary Milhollin, a law professor at the University of Wisconsin and director of the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control, and Diana Edensword, a research analyst at the project.

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ATOMIC BOMB BUILDERS

Sales to: Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission, the main atomic research laboratory; Badr and Daura sites, where bomb fuel was made; Al Qaaaa site, where detonators were made.

Canberra Elektronlk: computers for measuring gamma rays and fast neutrons— $30,000

Cerberus Ltd.: computers—$18,181

Hewlett Packard: computers; electronic testing, calibration and graphics equipment—$26,000

International Computer Systems: computers useful for graphic design of atomic bombs and missiles-—$1,600,000

Perkln-Elmer: computers and instruments useful for quality control of bomb fuels—$280,000

TI Coating Inc.: equipment for coating metal parts, useful for bomb production— $373,708

ATOMIC BOMB AND MISSILE BUILDERS

Sales to: Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization, which ran the atomic bomb, missile and chemical weapon factories; Nassr state enterprise, where equipment for enriching atomic bomb fuel was made; Salah Al Din site, where electronic equipment for missiles and atomic bombs was made; Ministry of Defense, which oversaw missile and atomic bomb development.

Axel Electronics: capacitors—$84,000

BDM Corporation: computers; computer-assisted design equipment—$52,000
Canberra Elektronlk: computers for computer-assisted design—$21,552
Carl Zeiss: microcomputers for mapping—$104,545

Consarc Corporation: computers to run machine tools capable of manufacturing atomic bomb parts (this sale was stopped by Presidential order in June 1990)— $526,550

Data General Corporation: computers for mapping—$324,000 Gerber Systems: computers to run machine tools capable of manufacturing; atomic bomb and missile parts—$367,428

Hewlett Packard: computers for making molds; frequency synthesizers and other equipment useful for operating secured military communications systems— $1,045,500

Honeywell Inc.: computers—$353,333

International Computer Systems: computers far manufacturing, tool design and graphics—$4,497,700

International Computers Ltd.: computers—$687,994

Leybold Vacuum Systems: computer controlled welder used by Iraqis to produce centrifuges for making atomic bomb fuel—$1,400,000

Lummus Crest: Radio spectrum analyzers; design computers; computers for factories producing mustard gas ingredients—$250,000

Rockwell Collins International: equipment for navigation, directional finding,
radar communications or airborne communications—$127,558
Sackman Associates: computers and instruments capable of analyzing metals and
powders for atomic bomb and missile manufacture—$60,000

Siemens Corporation: computers and instruments capable of analyzing metals
and powders for atomic bomb and missile manufacture—$78,000
Spectra Physics: lasers; detection and tracking equipment for lasers—$19,000
Unisys Corporation: computers—$2,600,000

Wild Magnavox Satellite Survey: computers for processing satellite images that
are useful for military mapping and surveillance—$270,000
Zeta Laboratories: quartz crystals for military radar—-$1,105,000

MISSILE BUILDERS

Sales to: Saad 16, the main missile research site; State Organization for Technical Industry, the procurement organization for missile sites that bought most Scud missile parts and equipment

BDM Corporation: computers; superconducting electronics—$29,405
Carl Schenck: computers—$10,228
EZ Logic Data: computers—$27,800

Finnigan MAT: computers that U.N. inspectors believe monitored uranium enrichment for atomic bomb fuel—$483,000

Hewlett Packard: electronic testing equipment; computers; frequency synthesizers; radio spectrum analyzers—$599,257

International Computer Systems: computers—$1,375,000
International Imaging Systems: computers for processing satellite data; infrared
equipment capable of aerial reconaissance and military surveillance—$688,000
Lummus Crest: computers to aid factory design—$44,320
Perkin-Elmer-. computers—$24,560
Scientific Atlanta: equipment for producing radar antennas—$820,000

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Semetex Corporation: computers—$5,155,781

Spectral Data Corporation: satellite data processing equipment—$26,880
Tektronix: high-speed electronics useful in developing atomic bombs and missiles;
radio spectrum analyzers for developing microwave equipment—$102,000
Thermo Jarrell Ash Corporation: computers for testing materials—$350,898
Unisys Corporation: computers for production control—$7,796
Veeco Instruments Inc.: computers for factory design—$4,640
Wiltron Company: equipment for making radar antennas—$49,510

[In»ert from the New York Times, The Week in Review, Sunday, July 18. 1983—

E5.)

IRAQ'S PURCHASES IN THE A-BOMB SUPERMARKET

The Number of Deals

The Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control has compiled a list of all the publicly known deals in which Iraq bought technology and equipment for its nuclear and missile programs before the Persian Gulf war in 1991. Some purchases were made from brokers rather than directly from the manufacturer.

A deal can mean construction of an entire factory, or supplying the machine tools or training to operate it The vast majority of these deals were approved by or i through the governments.

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SHARE OF RESPONSIBILITY

Breakdown of Iraq's purchases, weighted for importance to its nuclear and missile programs, as estimated by the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control. One example: although France had only six transactions with the Iraqis, one was to build the Osirak nuclear reactor, which Israel destroyed by bombing in 1981.

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[Source on all charts: Gary Milhollin and Diana L. Edensword, Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control.]

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