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[Insert from the New York Times OP-ED Friday, April 24, 1992—A35.]
IRAQ'S BOMB, CHIP BY CHIP
The U.S. Commerce Department licensed the following strategic American exports for Saddam Hussein's atomic weapon programs between 1986 and 1990. Virtually all of the items were shipped to Iraq; all are useful for making atomic bombs or long-range missiles. United Nations inspectors in Iraq are still trying to find most of them. The list is based on Commerce Department export licensing records; the dollar amount of each transaction is as claimed by the exporting company. It was compiled by Gary Milhollin, a law professor at the University of Wisconsin and director of the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control, and Diana Edensword, a research analyst at the project.
ATOMIC BOMB BUILDERS
Sales to: Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission, the main atomic research laboratory; Badr and Daura sites, where bomb fuel was made; Al Qaaaa site, where detonators were made.
Canberra Elektronlk: computers for measuring gamma rays and fast neutrons— $30,000
Cerberus Ltd.: computers—$18,181
Hewlett Packard: computers; electronic testing, calibration and graphics equipment—$26,000
International Computer Systems: computers useful for graphic design of atomic bombs and missiles-—$1,600,000
Perkln-Elmer: computers and instruments useful for quality control of bomb fuels—$280,000
TI Coating Inc.: equipment for coating metal parts, useful for bomb production— $373,708
ATOMIC BOMB AND MISSILE BUILDERS
Sales to: Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization, which ran the atomic bomb, missile and chemical weapon factories; Nassr state enterprise, where equipment for enriching atomic bomb fuel was made; Salah Al Din site, where electronic equipment for missiles and atomic bombs was made; Ministry of Defense, which oversaw missile and atomic bomb development.
Axel Electronics: capacitors—$84,000
BDM Corporation: computers; computer-assisted design equipment—$52,000
Consarc Corporation: computers to run machine tools capable of manufacturing atomic bomb parts (this sale was stopped by Presidential order in June 1990)— $526,550
Data General Corporation: computers for mapping—$324,000 Gerber Systems: computers to run machine tools capable of manufacturing; atomic bomb and missile parts—$367,428
Hewlett Packard: computers for making molds; frequency synthesizers and other equipment useful for operating secured military communications systems— $1,045,500
Honeywell Inc.: computers—$353,333
International Computer Systems: computers far manufacturing, tool design and graphics—$4,497,700
International Computers Ltd.: computers—$687,994
Leybold Vacuum Systems: computer controlled welder used by Iraqis to produce centrifuges for making atomic bomb fuel—$1,400,000
Lummus Crest: Radio spectrum analyzers; design computers; computers for factories producing mustard gas ingredients—$250,000
Rockwell Collins International: equipment for navigation, directional finding,
Siemens Corporation: computers and instruments capable of analyzing metals
Wild Magnavox Satellite Survey: computers for processing satellite images that
Sales to: Saad 16, the main missile research site; State Organization for Technical Industry, the procurement organization for missile sites that bought most Scud missile parts and equipment
BDM Corporation: computers; superconducting electronics—$29,405
Finnigan MAT: computers that U.N. inspectors believe monitored uranium enrichment for atomic bomb fuel—$483,000
Hewlett Packard: electronic testing equipment; computers; frequency synthesizers; radio spectrum analyzers—$599,257
International Computer Systems: computers—$1,375,000
Semetex Corporation: computers—$5,155,781
Spectral Data Corporation: satellite data processing equipment—$26,880
[In»ert from the New York Times, The Week in Review, Sunday, July 18. 1983—
IRAQ'S PURCHASES IN THE A-BOMB SUPERMARKET
The Number of Deals
The Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control has compiled a list of all the publicly known deals in which Iraq bought technology and equipment for its nuclear and missile programs before the Persian Gulf war in 1991. Some purchases were made from brokers rather than directly from the manufacturer.
A deal can mean construction of an entire factory, or supplying the machine tools or training to operate it The vast majority of these deals were approved by or i through the governments.
SHARE OF RESPONSIBILITY
Breakdown of Iraq's purchases, weighted for importance to its nuclear and missile programs, as estimated by the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control. One example: although France had only six transactions with the Iraqis, one was to build the Osirak nuclear reactor, which Israel destroyed by bombing in 1981.
[Source on all charts: Gary Milhollin and Diana L. Edensword, Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control.]