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2003 High-strength aluminum c have beton ap
plications, including production of wircraft parts, but
ko sito one of the few materials that can withstand
the righ rotational speeds required of o cento
osowanium enrichment - key stap inces
bomb building

REN I vos revealed last week
that free had tried to purchase

"aluminum subes, soomed to
many experts sad certainly to the Bush
administration that Saddam Hussein
was conting tempts to bad asciner
weapon. The area was party based
on the shape and comportion of te tuber
which were much like thened to al
materice

Rut keeping track of all of out
ment and low-how that plato maing.
nuclear bomb is rarely a simple task
Some items have been others, the
Dopriate for making a bob, hardor
ou implications. Powing is a selection
of technologies and services that are
known to have been transferred to
tries with sucher ambitious - all of
which raised musicions regarding that
imate

TON ZELLER

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Cowowi n compted by Jordan
Rich and Gery hond the Woord
Proton Much Arme Control

High-Precision Switches
2018 The switches have legitimate and beneficial
usos, including in machines that pulverize kidney
stones. But they are also useful in detonang rucioa
weapons. Irag bought six machines for treating kid
ney stones, each containing and wilch, and ordered
120 moro owiches as "spera parte. It is unclear how
many Iraq actually received

ON
100Thero magnete ve specially
designed for gas centrifuge
(pictured above), which we used to
convert uranium lo nuclear
weapons-grade fuel

Wantede Ensched Uranium
Astarota to acquire nucles materia
around the world we on the ongoin.

- Condmed incidente

worden
ONLOW
WOUL

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Russia
1991 Heavy water in small amount is used
in laboratories and for medical testing, and
graphite goes into golf clubs and tennis rack-
sts. But when heavy water quantities each in
to the tons, the only use can be in nuclear re-
actors. Reactors using heavy water, like this
one in India, are especially attractive for pro-
ducing plutonium for nuclear weapons

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Tested Weapons Designs

Maud and
deplone warun
ind honun is -

Uranium Prospecting
1980's Uranium is used in the poacolul production
of nuclear energy, but Iran's Milan power program
doesn't require native digging. All of the country's
urantur fuel will come from Russia. loading some
experts to believe that uranium hunts by Iranian en
gineers (with expertise provided by the Chinese
ounterparts) to in the service ol bomb making

Chine
LARLY 1 Barion reasons for w ing nucles
weapon dobiono wo hard to imagine Experts say the
Pakloton was able to shop for part o m arondly
mated docton provided by the Churon Antrag vor.
sion of the same design (above) Adcovered

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(Insert from the New York Times OP-ED Friday, April 24, 1992—A35.)

IRAQ'S BOMB, CHIP BY CHIP The U.S. Commerce Department licensed the following strategic American exports for Saddam Hussein's atomic weapon programs between 1985 and 1990. Virtually all of the items were shipped to Iraq; all are useful for making atomic bombs or long-range missiles. United Nations inspectors in Iraq are still trying to find most of them. The list is based on Commerce Department export licensing records; the dollar amount of each transaction is as claimed by the exporting company. It was compiled by Gary Milhollin, a law professor at the University of Wisconsin and director of the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control, and Diana Edensword, a research analyst at the project.

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ATOMIC BOMB BUILDERS Sales to: Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission, the main atomic research laboratory; Badr and Daura sites, where bomb fuel was made; Al Qaaaa site, where detonators were made. Canberra Elektronik: computers for measuring gamma rays and fast neutrons $30,000 Cerberus Ltd.: computers $18,181 Hewlett Packard: computers; electronic testing, calibration and graphics equipment-$25,000 International Computer Systems: computers useful for graphic design of atomic bombs and missiles $1,600,000 Perkin-Elmer: computers and instruments useful for quality control of bomb fuels $280,000 TI Coating Inc.: equipment for coating metal parts, useful for bomb production$373,708

ATOMIC BOMB AND MISSILE BUILDERS

Sales to: Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization, which ran the atomic bomb, missile and chemical weapon factories; Nassr state enterprise, where equipment for enriching atomic bomb fuel was made; Salah Al Din site, where electronic equipment for missiles and atomic bombs was made; Ministry of Defense, which oversaw missile and atomic bomb development. Axel Electronics: capacitors $84,000 BDM Corporation: computers; computer-assisted design equipment_$52,000 Canberra Elektronik: computers for computer-assisted design-$21,552 Carl Zeiss: microcomputers for mapping-$104,545 Consarc Corporation: computers to run machine tools capable of manufacturing atomic bomb parts (this sale was stopped by Presidential order in June 1990) $525,550 Data General Corporation: computers for mapping-$324,000 Gerber Systems: computers to run machine tools capable of manufacturing atomic bomb and missile parts $367,428 Hewlett Packard: computers for making molds; frequency synthesizers and other equipment useful for operating secured military communications systems, $1,045,500 Honeywell Inc.: computers $353,333 International Computer Systems: computers for manufacturing, tool design and graphics_$4,497,700 International Computers Ltd.: computers $687,994 Leybold Vacuum Systems: computer controlled welder used by Iraqis to produce centrifuges for making atomic bomb fuel-$1,400,000 Lummus Crest: Radio spectrum analyzers; design computers; computers for factories producing mustard gas ingredients $250,000 Rockwell Collins International: equipment for navigation, directional finding, radar communications or airborne communications $127,558 Sackman Associates: computers and instruments capable of analyzing metals and powders for atomic bomb and missile manufacture $60,000 Siemens Corporation: computers and instruments capable of analyzing metals and powders for atomic bomb and missile manufacture $78,000 Spectra Physics: lasers; detection and tracking equipment for lasers $19,000 Unisys Corporation: computers $2,600,000 Wild Magnavox Satellite Survey: computers for processing satellite images that are useful for military mapping and surveillance $270,000 Zeta Laboratories: quartz crystals for military radar $1,105,000

MISSILE BUILDERS

Sales to: Saad 16, the main missile research site; State Organization for Tech-
nical Industry, the procurement organization for missile sites that bought most
Scud missile parts and equipment.
BDM Corporation: computers; superconducting electronics $29,405
Carl Schenck: computers $10,228
EZ Logic Data: computers $27,800
Finnigan MAT: computers that U.N. inspectors believe monitored uranium enrich-
ment for atomic bomb fuel-$483,000
Hewlett Packard: electronic testing equipment; computers; frequency synthesizers;
radio spectrum analyzers $599,257
International Computer Systems: computers $1,375,000
International Imaging Systems: computers for processing satellite data; infrared
equipment capable of aerial reconaissance and military surveillance $688,000
Lummus Crest: computers to aid factory design-$44,320
Perkin-Elmer: computers $24,560
Scientific Atlanta: equipment for producing radar antennas $820,000

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Semetex Corporation: computers $5,155,781
Spectral Data Corporation: satellite data processing equipment-$26,880
Tektronix: high-speed electronics useful in developing atomic bombs and missiles;
radio spectrum analyzers for developing microwave equipment_$102,000
Thermo Jarrell Ash Corporation: computers for testing materials $350,898
Unisys Corporation: computers for production control- $7,796
Veeco Instruments Inc.: computers for factory design- $4,640
Wiltron Company: equipment for making radar antennas $49,510

(Insert from the New York Times, The Week in Review, Sunday, July 18, 1993– E5.)

IRAQ'S PURCHASES IN THE A-BOMB SUPERMARKET The Number of Deals The Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control has compiled a list of all the pub licly known deals in which Irag bought technology and equipment for its nuclear and missile programs before the Persian Gulf war in 1991. Some purchases were made from brokers rather than directly from the manufacturer. A deal can mean construction of an entire factory, or supplying the machine tools or training to operate it. The vast majority of these deals were approved by or made through the governments.

West Germany
102 deals
United States
25 deals
Switzerland
22 deals
Britain
20 deals
Brazil
14 deals

Austria
9 deals
France
6 deals
Belgium
5 deals
Japan
5 deals
Saudi Arabia
3 deals
Chile
2 deals

Egypt
2 deals
Yugoslavia
2 deals
Argentina
1 deal
China
1 deal
Greece
1 deal
Liechtenstein
1 deal

Niger
1 deal
Poland
1 dea]
Portugal
1 deal
Soviet Union
1 deal
Spain
I deal
Sweden
1 deal

Italy
13 deals

SHARE OF RESPONSIBILITY
Breakdown of Iraq's purchases, weighted for importance to its nuclear and missile
programs, as estimated by the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control. One ex-
ample: although France had only six transactions with the Iraqis, one was to build
the Osirak nuclear reactor, which Israel destroyed by bombing in 1981
Switzerland United States Soviet Union Saudi Arabia
8 percent
3.5 percent
2 percent

1.5 percent
Italy
Austria
Japan

Other
5 percent
3 percent
1.5 percent

1.5 percent
France
Argentina
Niger

West Germany
5 percent
2.5 percent
1.5 percent

50 percent Brazil Egypt

Portugal 4 percent 2.5 percent

1.5 percent Britain Belgium

Yugoslavia 3.5 percent 2 percent

1.5 percent (Source on all charts: Gary Milhollin and Diana L. Edensword, Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control.)

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