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Nassr State Enterprise for Mechanical Industries (or Nesser Establishment for Mechanical Industries): Part of the Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization (MIMI), described above. Nassr procured equipment for Project 1728, a SCUD modification effort; was involved in Iraq's nuclear program; was the procurement arm for Taji, a site used to produce chemical munitions; and, according to Western intelligence documents, was "responsible for the development and manufacture of gas centrifuges for uranium enrichment."/16 Nassr also ran artillery ammunition plants; purchased "high-capacity driving nozzles" for missiles from a German company; may have been a part of the European procurement network run by Iraqi front company TDG in London; was the main customer of Matrix Churchill, another Iraqi front company in England; and was linked to the Condor II intermediate-range missile project.
Licensing Mass Destruction
to develop nuclear weapons. In March 1990, customs officers at Heathrow Airport in London seized a case of capacitors bound for AlQaqaa that were especially designed for detonating nuclear warheads.
• Total approvals: over $200 thousand, including:
1. Computers (ECCN 1565) in three cases valued at $200,000.
-No referral to the Energy Department, as required for items on
Technical Corporation for Special Projects (Techcorp): Also part of MIMI. Operated Sa'ad 16. Responsible for the SCUD modification project and development of the Condor II missile. Also purchased parts for the Iraqi supergun.
• Total approvals: $61,300, including:
1. Two computers (ECCN 1565) valued at $16,980 and
- No referral to the Energy Department, as required for items on
University of Mosul: Site of and procurement agent for Sa'ad 16 (also referred to as "Research & Development Center"), Iraq's major missile research and development center, where work was done on the Condor II and SCUD modification as well as research on chemical and nuclear weapons. According to European news reports, the German company that supplied Sa'ad 16 described the project as a "laboratory and workshop complex [that] will be run in cooperation with Mosul University."/18
• Total approvals: over $1.8 million, including:
1. Equipment for enhancing satellite images, including
- Commerce Department approved the related equipment
- This equipment enhances photographs taken by satellites. The
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1. Quartz crystals and assemblies (ECCN 1587) valued at $1.1
- Commerce approved without external review, despite the fact
2. Frequency synthesizers and equipment (ECCN 1531) valued
- Approved without external review, despite the fact that this
1. "BXA Facts" (press release), U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Export Administration, March 11, 1991. The list covers a period from 1985 to August 2, 1990, when Iraq invaded Kuwait, and reveals that three of the approvals were for over $1 billion worth of cargo trucks, which were not shipped. Id. at p. 3. See also, Stuart Auerbach, "$1.5 Billion in U.S. Sales to Iraq," Washington Post, March 11, 1991, p. Al; Michael Wines, "U.S. Tells of Prewar Technology Sales to Iraq Worth $500 million," New York Times, March 12, 1991, p. A13.