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serve our nation in this manner. I look forward to the very positive future that I believe Lawrence Livermore will have with your continued support.





JUNE 12, 2002

Mr. Chairman, my name is Dennis Ruddy. I am President and General Manager of BWXT Pantex, which manages the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas.

Since BWXT Pantex assumed operations of the plant a little more than a year ago, we have made significant progress in fulfilling the site's important national security missions:

• Evaluate, retrofit and repair weapons in support of both life extension programs and certification of weapon safety and reliability;

• Dismantle weapons that are surplus to the strategic stockpile;

• Sanitize components from dismantled weapons;

• Develop, test and fabricate chemical and explosive components; and • Provide interim storage and surveillance of plutonium components.

BWXT Pantex is preparing to accomplish future work that will provide a safe and reliable nuclear weapons stockpile for many years to come. That preparation involves improving our infrastructure and technology within a new security environment to ensure our ability to meet Stockpile Life Extension Program (SLEP) objectives.

I believe we all recognize the challenge of providing for the security of our facilities and our personnel in the wake of the events of September 11, 2001. Immediately after the tragic events of that day, we implemented a contingency plan to ensure the security of the site and our personnel. Since that time, we have enhanced security in a wide variety of areas. We increased security patrols around the site, tightened our requirements to access the facility, improved our physical security systems and replaced equipment that was beginning to show its age. While our workforce, and particularly our security force, has responded admirably, these enhancements have not come without costs. This fiscal year, more than $16 million in supplemental funding has been given to Pantex to cover these expenses. This amount is over and above the $68 million originally earmarked for Pantex security. Much of this funding has been used to cover overtime for our security force. Before September 11, our security guards normally worked 12 hours a day, on four consecutive days. Then, they had four days off. Since September 11, they have worked six consecutive 12-hour days, then been given two days off. In order to meet the NNSA's new security requirements, reduce our overtime, and put our guards back on a more reasonable work schedule, we established a target to hire 140 additional security officers by the end of this fiscal year. Through operational efficiencies and other security enhancements, we are seeking to reduce this new staffing to 109 additional officers. Either number will be a significant increase in security personnel compared to our staffing before the terrorist attacks. In addition to personnel additions, we are currently considering other security enhancements and their associated costs. In order to develop these security improvements and retain our new personnel, permanent increases in security funding with have to be made a priority. Despite the increased attention that we have given to security, our mission to support Stockpile Stewardship remains our primary focus. The Nation still depends on a reliable nuclear deterrent to protect our country and our allies, and BWXT Pantex is committed to safely providing weapons of the highest quality to our customer. As we look ahead, we see that the majority of our authorized weapons dismantlement workload is scheduled to be complete by 2008. It should be noted that the recent arms reduction agreement between the United States and Russia has not been factored into this schedule. Our weapons evaluation workload remains steady for the future. Beginning in 2005, we are planning for a surge in work to support SLEP effort. The additional SLEP workload will involve modifications to weapon systems and will bring with it additional evaluation requirements.

We are now working with the NNSA to ensure that this work is properly funded There are currently budget shortfalls in FY2003 and FY2004 that cause concern in the areas of Campaigns and Readiness in Technical Base and Facilities RTBFL Re ductions in Campaigns and RTBF funding in FY2003 and FY2004 could delay technological and facility improvements needed to implement the SLEP schedule on time. NNSA is well aware of these issues, and we are working together to assure that we can meet the military's future requirements for the stockpile.

As I have testified to this group before, we have significant infrastructure needs at Pantex. I am happy to report that thanks to the increased funding that we have received, we have made progress in improving our infrastructure. The FY2001 plusup and supplemental funding of approximately $15 million allowed us to make roof repairs to prevent leaks in weapons production facilities and replace some aging equipment necessary for our work. In FY2002, we are receiving $22 million in Facilities and Infrastructure Recapitalization Program (FIRP) funds and a plus-up of at least $20 million. These monies will be carefully used to make additional roof repairs, replace obsolete fire alarm systems and carry out much-needed maintenance in a wide variety of areas.

Still, there is much to be done. We had a $218 million backlog in infrastructure needs in FY2000. That number increased to $262 million in FY2001. The FIRP funds mentioned earlier will allow the FY2002 infrastructure backlog to decrease to approximately $248 million. (See Figure 1.) As this chart shows, we have turned the corner and are beginning to decrease the deferred maintenance backlog. While we are spending our infrastructure funds on the highest-priority items, the fact remains that more than 50 percent of the plant's square footage is over 25 years old, and many building elements are at the end of their service life and require restoration.

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Another key factor in our ability to support Stockpile Stewardship in the long term is the recruiting and retention of employees with critical skills. BWXT Pantex has taken a proactive approach to recruiting, retaining and developing the critical skills necessary to accomplish future weapons work. We have identified the critical skills in engineering, science and other areas necessary for us to maintain and grow our technical basis for weapons work. Of the 1,174 positions we consider to be critical, we have only 84 vacancies. This is an improvement over the 200 critical skill vacancies we had one year ago. We have also eliminated 33 exempt critical skills positions through the streamlining and reorganization of our Manufacturing Division. In addition to outside hiring, we have initiated two new programs to develop our employees from within. Late last year, BWXT Pantex announced the development of an Engineering Graduate Studies Program in conjunction with Texas Tech University, West Texas A&M University and the Amarillo Economic Development Corporation. This program is allowing our employees and other workers in the community to earn advanced engineering degrees locally. We also worked with West Texas A&M to develop an Employee MBA program to allow our workers to receive advanced instruction in business. Both of these programs have been very well received by our employees and will provide us with a higher quality workforce in the

years to come. As long as our budgets remain stable, we will be able to offer a working environment that helps attract and retain people with the key skills that we need.

As our workload at Pantex increases, so does the amount of oversight at our plant and other sites around the Complex. While we recognize and agree with the need for independent evaluation of our results, the growing oversight into our processes and activities detracts from the attention we are able to give to the day-to-day work that the NNSA requires of us. In this fiscal year alone, we have already had 27 audits from the Inspector General, DOE/NNSA, General Accounting Office and the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. This trend is sharply up from FY2000 and FY2001.

Looking to the future, we believe that positive gains will be realized as the reorganization of the NNSA continues. A streamlined path of communication will improve our business and make us more agile in responding to requests. The ability of NNSA to use its resources to better support the sites will increase efficiency. Movement of more decision-making responsibility to the field offices will also lead to more efficient operations. We fully support these changes and look forward to the reorganization being implemented as soon as possible.

As I said at the outset, BWXT Pantex is laying the groundwork for important Stockpile Stewardship work to extend the life of our nuclear weapons stockpile. Improvements in technology and infrastructure will prepare the site to meet NNSA's SLEP goals. In the interim, we will work with NNSA and Congress to address the challenges that we currently face.

Mr. Chairman, thank you for the opportunity to present these views to you today. I look forward to continuing to work with you and the members of this committee to ensure the safety and reliability of the stockpile in the future. I will be happy to answer any questions the Committee may have.

Biography of Dennis R. (Denny) Ruddy,
President and General Manager, BWXT Pantex

Denny Ruddy has 30 years of experience managing complex nuclear and non-nuclear manufacturing operations. In 25 years at DOE's Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, he held staff level positions in Quality Assurance and Manufacturing. As Manager of Quality Assurance, he had oversight of design, testing, manufacturing, and prototype reactor operations. As Manager of Core Manufacturing, he was responsible for the production of nuclear reactor cores, fuels, components and test hardware, special nuclear material control, R & D, and design/production interface. With Tenneco, he was responsible for the total Quality Program for the international packaging operations. In his last assignment as head of global manufacturing for Tenneco Automotive, he managed 70 plants in 23 countries, a workforce of 20,000, and an operations budget of $3.2B. In both the DOE and commercial arenas, he has a proven record of guiding change and improving performance and safety.




JUNE 12, 2002

Mr. Chairman and Committee Members:

Thank you for the opportunity to testify on the Safety, Security, Reliability, and Performance of the United States Nuclear Stockpile. My name is Fred Tarantino and I am the president and general manager of Bechtel Nevada, the Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) management and operations contractor1 for the Nevada Test Site (NTS).

1 In accordance with Rule XI, Clause 2(g) of the Rules of the House of Representative, Contract DEAC08-96-NV-11718 with the U.S. Department of Energy, was awarded to Bechtel Nevada with an effective start date of January 1, 1996 for a five-year term at an estimated value of $1.5 billion. The option to extend the contract was exercised for a term of four years and nine months, extending the contract to September 30, 2005, at an estimated value of $1.425 billion.

Executive Summary

The Nevada Test Site was established in 1951 as the United States on-continent proving ground for nuclear weapons testing. Today, the NTS remains the nation's sole capability to conduct nuclear testing and provides a test range for a wide variety of other dynamic and high hazard experiments. In the absence of nuclear testing, the NTS has continued to provide unique and vital capabilities for assuring the safety, security, reliability, and performance of the nuclear stockpile through participation in the Stockpile Stewardship Program. Prominent examples of our work in the Stockpile Stewardship Program include subcritical experiments conducted at the NTS, diagnostics development and operational support of experiments at the National Weapons Laboratories, and construction of new experimental facilities at the NTS for testing aging weapons materials.

The NTS is committed to maintaining underground nuclear test readiness. NTS annual assessments and national studies have confirmed our ability to return to nuclear testing within the Presidential Decision Directive mandated 2-3 year timeframe. However, these assessments indicate a continued decline in critical personnel skills, facilities, infrastructure and equipment as well as the lack of an established authorization basis for nuclear testing within today's regulatory and procedural requirements. We are supporting the NNSA in a current study to determine the cost to achieve and maintain 18-month test readiness, should national policy require it. Capital investment at the NTS has declined considerably over the past 15 years, leading to deterioration of critical facilities and infrastructure. The NTS also has a significant amount of legacy compliance issues resulting from 40 years of nuclear testing that are borne by the Stockpile Stewardship Program. The recently enacted Facilities and Infrastructure Recapitalization Program will begin to revitalize sitewide infrastructure, but continued attention will be needed to maintain the NTS as an effective asset for conducting high hazard national security programs. Introduction

The Nevada Test Site was established in 1951 as the United States on-continent proving ground for nuclear weapons testing. Today, the NTS remains the United States sole capability to conduct nuclear testing and other major experiments that involve special nuclear materials. The NTS provides the NNSA a test range for a wide variety of other dynamic and high hazard experiments that require a controlled remote location and skilled technical workforce. In the absence of nuclear testing, the NTS has continued to provide unique and vital capabilities for assuring the safety, security, reliability, and performance of the nuclear stockpile through participation in the Stockpile Stewardship Program.

Efficacy of the Science-Based Stockpile Stewardship Program

Since July 1997, seventeen large-scale subcritical experiments have been successfully conducted at the NTS. Subcritical experiments use chemical high explosives to generate high pressures that are applied to nuclear materials. These experiments result in no nuclear explosion or self-sustaining nuclear reaction. These complex hydrodynamic experiments provide vital information on the behavior and performance of aging nuclear materials. The most recent of these tests, Oboe-9, was conducted last week. Two additional subcritical experiments are scheduled later this year. NTS and National Weapons Laboratory (Los Alamos, Livermore, and Sandia) personnel skilled in experiment design, test bed engineering and construction, diagnostics development and fielding, and experiment controls have achieved excellent data recovery on all subcritical experiments. Series of subcritical experiments have been developed to optimize experiment productivity and reuse facilities and equipment. These optimized experiments allow quicker collection and analysis of data that is used to understand and predict nuclear weapons behavior. Current Stockpile Stewardship Program plans describe a continuing need for subcritical experiments as part of future weapons certification activities and therefore NTS critical facilities and specialized personnel.

NTS capability to acquire high quality performance data for weapons materials is also being enhanced by the addition of the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experiment Research (JASPER) facility and the Atlas experiment facility. JASPER is a high velocity gas gun designed for shock physics experiments of nuclear and surrogate materials. JASPER will provide equation-of-state data to better understand phase change relationships of weapons materials under varying pressure and temperature. The JASPER facility construction was recently completed on schedule and within budget. The project has received NNSA Defense Programs Excellence and DOE Project Management Awards.

Atlas is a pulsed power experimental facility that will test the hydrodynamic implosion behavior of non-nuclear and surrogate nuclear materials. Atlas will provide

material constitutive property data for computer modeling used in weapons certification. The facility to house the Atlas machine is currently under construction at the NTS. The experimental facility is scheduled to be operational at the NTS near the end of FY 2003.

In addition, the NTS is a major contributor to the Above Ground Experiment (AGEX) programs conducted at the National Weapons Laboratories. NTS scientists and engineers provide diagnostics and data analysis for research aspects of the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility and the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) Proton Radiography program. Similarly, NTS personnel provide diagnostics and experiment fielding capability to Livermore and Sandia for high energy density physics and radiation transport experiments. NTS personnel based at Livermore are also preparing calibrations facilities for the National Ignition Facility. NTS personnel provide cost effective, technically integrated diagnostics support deployed across the nuclear weapons complex. This diagnostics work is very important for maintaining the overall ÑTS expertise to collect important scientific information from underground nuclear tests if they are needed.

In the absence of nuclear testing, subcritical experiments and AGEX programs provide best available data relating to baseline material performance consistent with aging materials and conditions observed in the stockpile. These experiments also provide critical data used in developing and validating computational models of weapons behavior in the Advanced Simulation and Computing Campaign. As in the past for underground nuclear tests, the NTS provides the Stockpile Stewardship Program with a test range for hazardous experiments, skilled personnel in experiment fielding and execution, and a mission focused approach for conducting National security programs.

NTS Stockpile Stewardship Future Activities

Accelerated Pit Certification-Experiments conducted at the NTS are an integral part of the Pit Certification and Manufacturing Program. NTS will support Los Alamos requirements for testing of a certifiable manufactured pit. All NTS FY2001 and FY2002 milestones have been met or are on track to meet the planned experimental schedule.

On-site Laboratory Diagnostic Support-During nuclear testing, NTS personnel were stationed at the National Weapons Laboratories to facilitate diagnostics development and experiment planning. Today, NTS personnel are working on-site at the National Weapons Laboratories to provide diagnostics support and experiment fielding for a variety of Stockpile Stewardship experiments. For example, NTS personnel based at Livermore will become an integral part of target area operations and diagnostic development at the National Ignition Facility. These weapons related research activities will help maintain similar skills needed for underground nuclear test readiness.

Weapons Systems Certification-Extending the service life of the B61, W76, and W80 in the coming years will require a variety of experimental and computational certification activities depending on the specific refurbishment options. Although the details of experimental requirements are preliminary, the NTS will be required to support subcritical/hydrodynamic experiments as well as a variety of AGEX activities for these weapons systems. As the W88 Pit Certification program is completed, it expected that other weapons system certification programs will require continued experimental workload for the NŤS.

Adequacy of the Current Underground Nuclear Test Readiness Posture

The historical role of NTS in conducting underground nuclear tests (UGTs) has been to develop nuclear diagnostics, provide engineering and construction of the UGT test bed, acquire experimental data, and provide post experiment data reduction and analysis for the National Weapons Laboratories. In addition, NTS person: el provided integrated management of site and facility operations at the NTS and supported NNSA authorization and safety basis for conducting nuclear tests.

În the years since nuclear testing ceased, the NTS has stored critical UGT related material and equipment, categorized and archived UGT process and procedural information, and documented interviews of critical skilled UGT subject matter experts. Stockpile Stewardship experiments, particularly subcritical experiments, have become the primary means of engaging the technical workforce and developing experience in large-scale integrated experiments similar to UGTs. Other non-nuclear experiments at the NTS and at the National Weapons Laboratories have also contributed to our readiness to execute an underground test.

The NTS is committed to maintaining the long-term viability of personnel technical skills, physical assets, and infrastructure required to safely conduct underground nuclear tests. Since 1996, formal processes have been utilized to evaluate

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