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proper adoration, the affirmative might be further argued from the very striking and sublime introduction of ALL INTELLIGENT NATURES, as joining in paying this honour to the Father, and equally to Christ“ the Lamb of God." Let the reader compare it with the inferior, though most beautiful, recapitulation in Psalm cxlviii. and let him consider whether a real adoration of the Deity can be admitted in the one case, and refused in the other.

These comparisons appear to me satisfactorily to shew, that Dr. Carpenter has not sufficient grounds for imagining that “it is impossible not to perceive the wide difference between the homage paid to the Lamb, and the worship paid to Him that liveth for ever :" and he adds, “the last only is spoken of as worship.” This respectable author rests this part of his argument on Chap. iv. 8, 10, and he marks as emphatical the word worship, in the latter verse. Yet this very word (at poo xuveiv), when it occurs in application to Christ, Unitarians zealously contend must be understood as denoting no real and religious adoration, but only a civil respect.* It is also to be observed that one of the passages cited above is signally adverse to this notion of an essential distinction. After the universe is represented as uttering the words of adoring praise, “ To him that sitteth upon the throne AND TO THE LAMB, be blessing and honour and glory and

* See page 270, of this Volume.

dominion ;” it is added, “ the elders fell down and worshipped."* The terms and the connexion plainly lead us to regard the object of this prostration and worship to be both Him who sitteth upon the throne, and the Lamb: whom we believe to be, in Essence and Deity, ONE.

Dr. Carpenter considers it as a “remarkable and decisive fact,” that the verb to pay religious service (aatpeteix)" is used twenty-one times in the New Testament, and always in the sense of religious service, but not once in reference to Jesus Christ.”+ But, had this word occurred in repeated application to Christ, I have not a doubt but Unitarians would have refused to admit any argument from it against their theory : for it is a word of very general import, and expresses any kind of religious action, particularly in relation to public and social offices, as in the offering of sacrifices and discharging all the other functions of the Levitical priesthood, f and as in the whole conduct of a life devoted to the service of God. It is by no means the peculiar or the highest verb of adoration. Indeed this might, with more reason be affirmed of a porxuveiv, the verb which is repeatedly applied to Christ, and which is used in the passage of the New Testament which most especially and solemnly

* Chap. v. 13, 14. The words in the received text, Him that liveth for ever and ever," are wanting in the best authorities ; and are therefore rejected by Griesbach, and in the Impr. Version.

+ Page 28. Heb. viji. 5. xiii, 10. § Acts xxvii. 33. Rom. i. 9.

refers to religious worship.* The reader scarcely needs to be reminded that all the attributions of divine honour which are recited as the language of angels and saints when they worship God, we have just seen are made to Christ, in the strictest and fullest manner.

· On the objections of the Calm Inquirer, t I submit the following remarks :

(1) The first objection has already been considered.

(2) Though the Apocalyptic scenery be, in many respects, ideal, yet it was intended to be instructive ; and it was given expressly that we should


from visions to realities." Whatever difficulties may attend the perfect exposition of the imagery, the leading design is rarely

* John iv. 23, 24.

+ "1. That the authenticity of the book is doubtful. No doctrine therefore is to be admitted upon this evidence, which is, clearly to be proved from other undisputed Scriptures.2. The whole scene is visionary, and in a literal sense impos. sible : and it is unreasonable to argue from visions to realities. -3. The foundation of the homage paid to the Lamb is, that he was slain : therefore he is not God, nor entitled to divine honours.-4. The homage paid is addressed to a person sensibly and visibly present; it cannot therefore authorize religious addresses to the same being, when he is not sensibly present.-5. It has been already proved that the association of the name of God with that of some other person, even in an act of worship, by no means proves equality of nature, rank, or homage.-6. Admitting the genuineness and inspiration of the Apocalypse, the lofty and symbolical language of prophecy may possibly mean nothing more than to express the joy and gratitude of the whole human race at the triumphs of the Gospel. P. 371, 372.

obscure, and the theological and devotional sentiments are usually very clear to an attentive mind.

(3) The assertion that, because Christ suffered and was slain," therefore he is not God, nor entitled to divine honours," is to the last degree weak and disingenuous. Those who employ this objection cannot but know the doctrine which they oppose, to be essentially different from the representation which, for their own purposes, they choose to make of it. They cannot be ignorant, or if they are, it is little to their credit as controversialists, that according to the doctrine under discussion, the Divine Nature of our Lord is unchangeable and incapable of suffering ; and that it was as man that he bore our griefs and carried our sorrows. But we have yet to learn that there is any incongruity in loving and praising the Eternal Word for the infinite benefits derived from the sufferings of the nature which alone had a capacity to suffer, which he had assumed for the express purpose of obedience and suffering, and which derived the efficacy of its sufferings, in promoting the salvation of man, from its mysterious but unconfused union with the Deity. All the results of the stupendous. act by which the Redeemer “became flesh and dwelt among us,” are properly referred to the original condescension and benevolence of that act. The fact therefore of “the Lamb being slain and redeeming us to God by his blood," is: a

perfectly proper “ foundation of homage” to

Him who, though He could not die, took the nature which could and did. It is reasonable and right thus to celebrate “ the blood of Christ, who, through the Eternal Spirit, offered himself without spot unto God.” If our opponents reject this doctrine, if they choose to treat it with contempt and scorn, at least they ought to refrain from misrepresenting it.

(4) This is turning away from the point in question, which is simply this, whether the homage paid to Christ is, or is not, religious adoration. If it is, as we conceive that the evidence satisfactorily establishes, then he is every where and at all times present to receive it: if it is not, his presence or his absence can make no difference in this respect.

(5) This altogether, as we have before said, depends upon the kind and manner of the association, and the nature of the worship; and those circumstances must be ascertained by their proper evidence,

(6) The language of prophecy, however “ lofty and symbolical,” must be interpreted by rational and consistent rules : and the sense whicb we give to the passages under consideration is that which we conceive to be the necessary result of such rules of interpretation.

III. Jesus Christ says of himself, “I am the First and the Last and the Living one ; and I became dead, and behold I am living for ever and ever. These things saith the First and the Last. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First

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