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GENERAL RULE.—Do not pervert, nor omit without good authority, the sound of any letter or syllable of a word.
“ gen'er al.
Souns for sounds.
Fiels 66 fields. Ketch 16 catch.
6 softly. Geth'er “ gath'er.
weptst. Stid'y 66 stead'y.
Kindl’st 66 kindl'dst.
Amst 66 arm’dst.
Sep'rate 6 sep'a rate.
Mis'ries 16 mis'er ies. Sav'ij
Dif'frence " dif' fer ence. Mawn'ing “ morn'ing. Ex'lent s ex'cel lent. CH'mit 66 cli'mate.
66 com'pa ny. Silunt 66 si'lent.
“ liv'ing. Muh'duz 5 murders.
Lenth'en “ length'en. By the foregoing examples it will be seen that the faults in pronunciation resulting from defective articulation are very
These can be corrected by thorough training in the elementary sounds and their various combinations. But there are also errors committed in pronunciation by improper accentuation, and by articulating letters which the best authorities say should be silent. These faults may be corrected by constant reference to standard dictionaries. This should never be neglected or postponed; but, whenever a doubt occurs about the pronounciation of a word, let the proper authorities be consulted at once.
QUESTIONS.—What is correct pronunciation? What is the first rule? Give examples of its violation. What is the second rule? How violated ! Give examples. What is the third rule? Why must caution be exercised in the use of Rule Third? Repeat the general rule. From what do numerous faults in pronunciation result? In what other way are errors committed ? How may they be corrected ?
EMPHASIS is that stress of voice applied to a certain word, which distinguishes it from other words in the same sentence.
The object of emphasis is to bring prominently before the mind of the hearer one or more words of a sentence, which must receive his particular attention, if he would fully comprehend the meaning of the author to whose language he listens. This is generally effected by an increased stress, or loudness of voice; but it may sometimes be more effectually accomplished by changing the pitch, by prolonging the utterance, or by diminishing the stress.
Emphatic words are sometimes indicated by italic letters, though it is generally left to the reader to determine where emphasis should be placed. When different degrees of emphasis are applied to words in the same connection, the least emphasis may be denoted by italics, the next by SMALL CAPITALS, and the most emphatic by LARGE CAPITALS.
EMPHASIS may be divided into Antithetic, Absolute, and Cumulative.
Antithetic Emphasis is that which is applied to the contrasted words of an antithesis.
Antithesis, from which this division of Emphasis derives its name, may be defined a phrase or sentence in which words are contrasted with each other.
Antithetic Emphasis is called single, when one word is in contrast with one word; double, when two words are in contrast with two words; and treble, when three words are in contrast with three words.
RULE I.-The contrasted words of an antithesis must be emphasized.
1. I go, but I return.
4. It is my living sentiment, and, by the blessing of God, it shall be my dying sentiment.
5. If they had the vices of savage life, they had the virtues also. 6. Tell the ministers I will neither give quarter nor take it.
7. There is a time to weep, and a time to laugh; a time to mourn, and a time to dance.
8. His joy supreme, to bid the wretch survive the fortunate; the feebla wrap the athletic in his shroud.
NOTE.-The above are examples of single Antithetic Emphasis. The following are examples of double and treble Antithetic Emphasis.
1. Cleon hath a million acres; ne'er a one have I.
6. The images of the dead, as well as the persons of the living, throng to your embraces.
7. There is a remembrance of the dead, to which we turn, even from the charms of the living.
8. These principles have cost one king of England his life, another his
9. The insignificance of the accuser is sometimes lost in the magnitude of the accusation.
10. The former she would regard as the result of fortune; the latter she would feel as her own deep disgrace.
11. Through the thick gloom of the present, I see the brightness of the future.
12. Now this overdone or come tardy off, though it make the unskilful laugh, cannot but make the judicious grieve.
13. Why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye?
14. Contemporaries appreciate the man rather than the merit ; but posterity will regard the merit rather than the man.
15. Faithful are the wounds of a friend, but deceitful the kisses of an enemy.
NOTE.-Sometimes only one member of the antithesis is expressed. When this is the case, the member understood must be mentally supplied before the one expressed can be properly emphasized.
1. It was Cæsar who won the battle.
6. I'd rack thee, though I knew a thousand lives were perishing in thine.
7. It is not with stones or bricks that I have fortified the city. 8. It is not from words like these that I draw my reputation.
Absolute Emphasis is that which is applied to words that are in themselves important, or that do not derive their claim to vocal prominence from antithesis expressed or implied.
RULE II.-Words of command, words serving to express any important idea, and words of strong emotion, whether exclamatory, or not, must be made emphatic.
EXAMPLES. 1. Rouse, ye Romans ! 2. Stand! the ground's your own, my braves ! 3. Down, soothless insulter! I trust not the tale! 4. Look! how his temples flutter ! 5. Look! feast thy greedy eye with gold, long kept for sorest need. 6. Jacob's heart fainted, for he believed them not. 7. Here I stand, ready for impeachment and trial. 8. I am astonished, I am shocked, to hear such principles confessed. 9. I have been accused of ambition in presenting this measure.
10. Home! what does it not stand for, cf strongest, of most movin associations ?
11. Oh, it was unmanly; it was impious.
14. Here I stand and scoff you! here I fling hatred and defiance in your face.
15. I feel of this dull sickness at my heart, afraid!
16. Something seems to steal over my bosom like a frozen hand! And this is death!
Cumulative Emphasis is that which is applied with gradually-increasing force to a succession of emphatic words, the last receiving the greatest.
These words may be different words, or they may be repetitions of the same word. This kind of emphasis might be defined emphasis heaped upon emphasis; for it consists in uttering each successive word with emphasis placed on the emphasis of the preceding one. The application of Cumulative Emphasis should be regulated according to the number of emphatic words in the series. If there are many, the increase of emphasis upon each one must be less; if there are few, it
may be greater. Let the pupil be particularly careful not to make the increase upon each word so great, that the whole power of his voice will be exhausted before he reaches the end of the series.
RULE III.—Cumulative Emphasis is generally applied to a succession of emphatic words.
1. On! on! you noble English.
Must I bid twice? Hence, varlets, FLY! 3. Slaves ! TRAITORS! have ye flown? 4. To arms! to ARMS! ye braves ! 5. Be assured, be ASSURED, that this declaration will stand. 6. Rise, RISE, ye wild tempests, and cover his flight! 7. To arms ! to ARMS ! to ARMS! they cry. 8. Hence! HOME, you idle creatures! get you HOME ! 9. Hurrah for bright water! HURRAH! HURRAH! 10. I met him, FACED him, SCORNED him. 11. Horse! HORSE! and CHASE! 12. We may die; die COLONISTS! die SLAVES! 13. The charge is utterly, TOTALLY, MEANLY false. 14. Ay, cluster there! Cling to your master, judges, ROMANS, SLAVES