Page images

NOTE.-The first member of the antithesis generally takes the rising inflection, and the second the falling; but, if the former is more emphatic than the latter, the inflections are usually reversed.


1. Countenance more in sorrow', than in anger'.

2. Such a man is more deserving of punishment', than commiseration/ 3. It costs more to revenge' injuries, than to cure them.

4. Estimate persons by their hearts', rather than by their heads'. 5. He is more a cold-blooded murderer', than a poor deluded enthusiast'.

RULE VII.-Language of authority, denunciation, reproach, hatred, revenge, or any other vehement emotion, generally requires the falling inflection.


1. Awake! awake! put on thy strength'.

2. On them, hussars! Now give them rein and heel'!

3. Ho! sound the tocsin from the tower', and fire the culverin'! Bid each retainer arm with speed'; call every vassal in'!

4. Awake! Cecropia's ally save from the fury of the blast'; burst the storm on Phocis' walls'; rise, or Greece forever falls! up! or freedom breathes her last.

5. Woe unto thee, Chorazin'! woe' unto thee, Bethsaida'!

6. Woe', a thousandfold woe', to humanity, should there be nobody on earth to maintain the laws of humanity'!

7. Then Saul said to Elymas, O full of all subtlety', and all mischief“, thou child of the devil', thou enemy of all righteousness'.

8. Thou slave', thou wretch', thou coward', thou little valiant, great in villainy! What a fool art thou', a ramping fool; to brag', and stamp', and swear, upon my party'!

9. He is my bane'; I cannot bear him'; one heaven and earth can never hold us both'; still shall we hate'; and, with defiance deadly, keep rage alive till one be lost forever'.

10. But here I swear, with living breath, that for this wrong which you have done, I'll wreak my vengeance on your son';-on him', and you', and all your race'!

11. No, no, the drink', the drink',-Oh, my dear Hamlet'! the drink the drink'; I am poisoned'!

NOTE.-Exclamatory words and phrases emotion may be delivered according to this

indicating strong



1. Oh, horrible'! Oh, horrible'! most horrible'! 2. My phial! Ha! it thrills me! I revive'!

3. Ah! what a life were this! how sweet'! how lovely!

4. But hush! hark! a deep sound strikes like a rising knell'!

5. Mercy! pity! help'! help me, my children'! defend me1!

6. Help! help! ho! help'! The Moor has killed my mistress! Murder! murder'!

7. See there again'! my bed's on fire! the flames are kindling round my head! the smoke'! I'm strangling-cannot fly'! fire'! water! help'! Oh, haste', I die'!

8. O heaven! methought, what pain it is to drown'! What dreadful noise of water in mine ears! What sights of ugly death within mine eyes'!

RULE VIII.-In direct address, the name of the person or thing addressed generally receives the rising inflection.


1. Bright angels', strike your loudest strings.

2. Exult, then', O sun', in the strength of thy youth.

3. Salgar', it is Colma who calls! Salgar', my love! I am here.

4. But hush, my sighs'! fall not, ye drops of useless sorrow! heartbreaking anguish, choke not my utterance!

5. Awake, voice of sweet song'! Awake, my heart', awake! green vales and icy cliffs', all join my hymn.

6. Wives', submit yourselves unto your own husbands. Husbands', love your wives. Children', obey your parents.

7. I am not mad, most noble Festus', but I speak forth the words of truth and soberness.

EXCEPTION.-When emphasis is applied, the names of persons or things addressed generally take the falling inflection.


1. No! I curse your purpose, homicides'!

2. Down, soothless insulter, I trust not the tale.

3. Thou slave', thou wretch', thou coward'.

4. Answer me, thou coward, who hidest thyself in the hour of trial! RULE IX.-When a pause is necessary where the sense is incomplete, the rising inflection is generally used.


1. Softly', peacefully', lay her to rest.

2. I behold it pursuing, with a thousand misgivings', the uncertain", the tedious voyage'.

3. Gently', solemnly', bend o'er the bed where ye have pillow'd thus early her head'.

4. The Indian of falcon-glance', and lion-bearing', the theme of the touching ballad', the hero of the pathetic tale', is gone!

5. Not many generations ago', where you now sit, encircled with all that exalts, and embellishes civilized life', the rank thistle nodded in the wind', and the wild fox dug his hole unscared.

6. Beside yon straggling fence that skirts the way', with blossom'd furze unprofitably gay', there', in his noisy mansion', skilled to rule, the village master taught his little school'.

7. If a soil the most fertile has borne but a starving peasantry'; if noble rivers have flowed unburdened to the sea; if capacious harbors have been ruffled by no freighted keels'; if mines of wealth have slumbered untouched in the sleeping earth; still, I do not despair for my country'.

NOTE. The rising inflection in such examples as these should not extend through more than two or three tones.

EXCEPTION.-Emphasis sometimes changes the rising to the falling inflection.


1. The man who is in the daily use of ardent spirits, if he does not become a drunkard`, is in danger of losing his health and character.

2. Had I but served my God with half the zeal I served my king', he would not in mine age have left me naked to mine enemies.

3. If the mighty works which were done in you had been done in Tyre' and Sidon, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes.

RULE X.-Sentences, or members of sentences making complete sense, generally take the falling inflection.


1. I'll try his might'; I'll brave his power'.

2. There lies the land of song'; there lies the poet's land'.

3. You are prosperous'; you are happy'; you are grateful'.

4. Its afflictions are many; they are universal'; they are inevitable'. 5. The waters closed', and, when I shriek'd, shriek'd below the foam'!

6. Time flies'; words are unavailing'; the chieftains declare for instant battle'.

7. It betrays his discretion'; it breaks down his courage'; it conquers his prudence'.

8. I would dispute every inch of ground', burn every blade of grass', and the last intrenchment of liberty should be my grave'.

9. The lovely come out to look upon him'; the learned deck their halls to greet him'; the rulers of the land rise up to do him homage'.

10. We part forever'; this is our last farewell; the king is satisfied' the judge has spoken the irrevocable sentence'.

NOTE. In reading these examples, do not let the falling inflection extend below the medium pitch, unless the word which receives it is strongly emphatic or closes the sentence.

EXCEPTION 1.-If the last member of a sentence receives the falling inflection, the last but one, if not emphatic, may take the rising inflection.


1. His ready smile a parent's warmth express'd'; their welfare pleased him', and their cares distress'd'.

[ocr errors]

2. He thinks the whole world sees it in his face', reads it in his eyes', and almost hears its workings in the very silence of his thoughts'.

3. Let it rise, till it meet the sun, in his coming'; let the earliest light of the morning gild it', and parting day linger and play on its summit'.

[ocr errors]

EXCEPTION 2.-Negative sentences often end with the rising inflection. See Exception and Note under Rule V.

EXCEPTION 3.-Antithetic sentences often close with the rising inflection. See Note under Rule VI.


A number of words or phrases following one another in the same sentence constitute what is called a series.

If a series consists of words, it is called a simple series; as, valor, humanity, courtesy, justice, and honor, are his characteristics.

If a series consists of phrases, it is called a compound series; as, Fire of imagination, strength of mind, and firmness of soul, are gifts of nature.

When a series commences a sentence, it is called a commencing series; as, War, famine, pestilence, volcano, storm, and fire, besiege mankind.

When a series concludes a sentence, it is called a concluding series; as, Mankind are besieged by war, famine, pestilence, volcano, storm, and fire.

RULE XI.-If the members of a commencing series are not emphatic, they all take the rising inflection; but if emphatic, they all take the falling inflection, except the last, which takes the rising inflection.


1. Regulation', proportion', order', and color', contribute to grandeur as well as beauty'.


2. Hags', goblins', demons', lemures', have made me all aghast'.

3. The present scene', the future lot', his toils', his wants', were all forgot'.

4. Our own selfishness', our own neglect, our own passions', and our own vices', will furnish the elements of our destruction'.

5. The withering grass', and fading flowers, and drooping shrubs, look gay'.

6. And humility', and gratitude', and mercy', and penitent and softened hearts', will come along with it'.

7. Light, light', and art', and poetry', and eloquence', and all that we call glorious', are its dower'.

8. Minutes', hours', days', weeks, months', and years', will bring these white hairs into a quiet grave'.

9. Blind counsel', rash ambition', womanish fears', won upon the great statesman and warrior of Rome'.

10. These outward appliances and memorials of respect'-the mournful urn', the sculptured bust', the epitaph eloquent in praise—cannot, indeed, create these distinctions, but they serve to mark them'.

11. The warbling of birds', the murmuring of streams', the enamel of meadows', the coolness of woods', the fragrance of flowers', and the sweet smell of plants', contribute greatly to the pleasures of the mind and the health of the body'.

EXCEPTION.—If very emphatic, all the members may receive the falling inflection.

« PreviousContinue »