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The medium pitch must be the guide in getting all the other pitches. To obtain this, let the pupil read a few passages in a common conversational tone, carefully marking the prevailing note: this will be his key-note or medium pitch, which he may assume as one of the scale extending above, or as eight of the one below. From this let him descend to five of the scale below for the low pitch, and to three for the very low pitch. Then let him take five of the scale above for the high pitch, and eight for the very high pitch. Let him practice upon these five sounds until he can strike each one of them with readiness, and then he may read the line in these different pitches as in the first example.

(P4) It thunders! Sons of dust, in reverence bow!

Ancient of Days! thou speakest from above !
Almighty! trembling, like a timid child,
I hear thy awful voice. Alarmed,—afraid, —
I see the flashes of thy lightning wild,

And in the very grave would hide my head.
(po) It must be so : Plato, thou reason’st well!

Else whence this pleasing hope, this fond desire,
This longing after immortality ?
Or whence this secret dread, and inward horror,
Of falling into nought? Why shrinks the soul
Back on herself, and startles at destruction ?
'Tis the divinity that stirs within us;
'Tis heaven itself that points out an hereafter
And intimates eternity to man:
Eternity! thou pleasing, dreadful thought!

(p3) A pretty little fawn had been brought in from the wood. when it was very young, and had been nursed and petted by a young lady in the village until it had become completely domesticated. It was graceful, as those little creatures always are, and so gentle and playful that it became great favorite.

(24) Ye guards of liberty,

I'm with you once again! I call to you
With all my voice! I hold my hands to you,
To show they still are free! I rush to you
As though I could embrace you!

(25) Ho! cravens! do ye fear him?
Slaves ! traitors ! have


flown? Ho! cowards ! have ye left me

To meet him here alone ?

QUESTIONS.—What is pitch? How is it divided ? Will you describe very low pitch ? Low pitch? Medium pitch? High pitch? Very high pitch?


Force is that stress of voice applied to phrases and sentences, which distinguishes them from other phrases and sentences in the same paragraph or discourse.

Force is susceptible of numerous divisions; but, for elocutionary purposes, it will be sufficiently accurate to make only five; which are suppressed force, softened force, medium force, energetic force, and very energetic force.

Suppressed force is the lowest degree of stress or loudness ; and is used to express fear, caution, and secrecy.

Softened force is the ordinary loudness of the voice somewhat subdued; and is appropriately employed in language of solemnity and tenderness.

Medium force is that which is used in common conversation, and in reading narrative and descriptive pieces which are not particularly animated.

Energetic force is the medium loudness of the voice considerably increased; and is the appropriate force for earnest declamation, for animated narration and description, and for language expressive of lively and joyous emotions.

Very energetic force is the greatest power or loudness of the voice; and is used in calling and in giving commands.

Suppressed force may be represented by (f), softened force by (1), medium force by (43), energetic force by (f), and very energetic force by (85).

DIRECTIONS FOR EXERCISE ON FORCE. Repeat the example in every degree of force, proceeding from the least to the greatest, and then from the greatest back to the

least. Any pitch may be selected for this purpose, but probably the medium will be the best to begin with. In practicing these examples, the pupil must be careful not to change the pitch, as he will be very likely to do, especially in illustrating the greater degrees of force.


(85) Roll on, thou deep and dark blue ocean, roll!
(54) Roll on, thou deep and dark blue ocean, roll!
(13) Roll on, thou deep and dark blue ocean, roll!
(89) Roll on, thou deep and dark blue ocean, roll!
(f') Roll on, thou deep and dark blue ocean, roll!

on bed

(f) Adah. Hush! tread softly, Cain.

Cain. I will : but wherefore?
Adah. Our little Enoch sleeps upon
Of leaves, beneath the cypress.
() Softly, peacefully,

Lay her to rest;
Place the turf lightly

On her young breast,
Gently, solemnly,

Bend der the bed
Where ye have pillow'd

Thus early her head.

(f*) Not a drum was heard, nor a funeral note,

As his corse to the rampart we hurried ;
Not a soldier discharged his farewell shot

O’er the grave where our hero we buried.

(f) The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the North will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take, but as for me, ive me liberty or give me death !


braves !

(55) Stand! the ground's your own,

Will ye give it up to slaves ?
Will yo look for greener graves ?
Hope ye mercy still?

What's the mercy despots feel ?
Hear it in that battle-peal!
Read it on yon bristling steel :

Ask it, ye who will.

QUESTIONS.—Will you define force ? What are its divisions? What can you say of suppressed force? Softened force ? Medium force 1 Energetic force ? Very energetic force ?


Rate has reference to the rapidity or glowness of . utterance.

It may be divided into very slow rate, slow rate, medium rate, rapid rate, and very rapid rate.

Very slow rate is appropriately used in expressing awe, deep solemnity, and profound reverence.

Slow rate is the proper movement for language expressive of grief, dignity, gravity, and sublimity.

Medium rate is that which is employed in unimpassioned narration and description.

Rapid rate is appropriate in earnest declamation and eager argument, and in the expression of gay, sprightly, and joyful emotions.

Very rapid rate is that which is employed in uttering language expressive of rage, sudden fear, haste, and tumult.

The different degrees of rate may be indicated as follows:very slow rate by (-2), slow rate by (%), medium rate by (3), rapid rate by (34), very rapid rate by (7-5).

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DIRECTIONS FOR EXERCISE ON RATE. Select a line, and deliver it successively in every degree of rate, observing the same order in the repetitions as in the exercises on pitch and force. In practicing on the least degree do not let the utterance be too much prolonged; but let it be so regulated that there will be no difficulty in making three distinct degrees of movement between very slow rate and very rapid rate. This exercise should be practiced upon every pitch and with every degree of force.


(16) Just as the twig is bent, the tree's inclined.
(24) Just as the twig is bent, the tree's inclined.
(ne) Just as the twig is bent, the tree's inclined.
(3*) Just as the twig is bent, the tree's inclined.

() Just as the twig is bent, the tree's inclined.
(rh) Night, sable goddess, from her ebon throne,

In rayless majesty now stretches forth
Her leaden sceptre o’er a slumbering world.
Silence how dead! and darkness how profound !
Nor eye nor listening ear an object finds:
Creation sleeps. 'Tis as the general pulse
Of life stood still, and Nature made a pause;

An awful pause! prophetic of her end !
() Oh, from these sterner aspects of thy face

Spare me and mine, nor let us need the wrath
Of the mad, unchain'd elements to teach
Who rules them. Be it ours to meditate
In these calm shades thy milder majesty,
And to the beautiful order of thy works
Learn to conform the order of our lives.

(n) An old clock, that had stood for fifty years in a farmer's kitchen without giving its owner any cause of complaint, 'early one summer's morning, before the family was stirring, suddenly stopped.

(7) And there was mounting in hot haste: the steed,

The mustering squadron, and the clattering car,
Went pouring forward with impetuous speed,
And swiftly forming in the ranks of war.

(96) More rapid than eagles his coursers they came,

And he whistled, and shouted, and call’d them by name:
“Now, Dasher! now Dancer! now Prancer! now Vixen!
On, Comet! on, Cupid ! on, Dunder and Blitzen!
To the top of the porch, to the top of the wall!
Now, dash away, dash away, dash away all!"

NOTE.-When the foregoing examples in pitch, force, and rate can be uttered as indicated by the notation at the left, let appro priate passages of greater length be selected and delivered in the same way.

Exercise upon pitch will give compass to the voice;

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