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met with a favorable response. Besides being a method of transferring knowledge, these seminars serve an important role in providing an opportunity for AUSAs and agents to become acquainted, leading to closer professional relationships and increased coordinative efforts.

State and Local Investigative and Prosecutive Agencies: As the program develops, expanding its scope to include the State and local levels, the Specialist may become involved in establishing a cooperative working relationship between all levels of government. Coordinated efforts here could give both the Federal and State governments access to additional investigative and prosecutive resources, better and more complete information, and more experience to utilize. A sharing of information could eliminate duplication,

and establish connections or links in investigations.

In addition, it is expected that the Federal emphasis on white-collar crime will, in many instances, produce more cases than the OUSA will be able to prosecute effectively. In light of the national priorities, it will be necessary to develop an understanding with the State and local prosecutive agencies to have State and/or local attorneys further assist in the white

collar crime enforcement effort by prosecuting many of the cases over which

they have jurisdiction.

Advisory and Interest Groups, Business Organizations, and the General Public:

As the program develops, the Specialist should begin to establish liaison with

interest and advisory groups to help further the gathering and analysis of

white-collar crime information.

Included in this effort is the development

of information on methods of preventing and detecting these crimes and the dissemination of this information to possible victims, e.g., businesses and

the general public. The program hopes not only to develop new sources for

leads or information on these crimes, but also ultimately to limit their

occurrence by increasing the public's knowledge of prevention measures.

Moreover, public awareness of detection devices, and the authorities responsible for addressing these activities will improve law enforcement efforts. Additionally, raising the public's awareness of white-collar crime, its cost,

and the minimal risks taken by the criminal for maximal rewards, may help to

bring about increased pressure for stricter sanctions against offenders.

DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF ESTABLISHING AND IMPLEMENTING AN ECE UNIT

Once the Specialist is acclimated to his new role, four general phases of implementation, each an accession to the previous one, are undertaken: (1) accumulating and analyzing white-collar crime data; (2) communicating with district organizations involved or interested in white-collar crime enforcement; (3) coordinating efforts in the prevention, detection, investigation and prosecution of white-collar crime; and (4) prosecuting significant

white-collar crime cases.

Prior to implementing this program, however, several activities must take place: unit site-selection, Specialist selection, administrative preparation (prior to the Specialist's entry on duty), and orientation (subsequent to the Specialist's arrival in the OUSA).

Upon his arrival--which may be several months from the time of his selection-the Specialist goes through an orientation period, becoming familiar with his environment and making arrangements for any other materials or support he may require. During this time, the Specialist may have to complete cases carried over from his previous position. In certain instances, the Specialist

has taken the state bar examination or done some minor casework to obtain

court exposure, thereby gaining acceptance within the Federal judiciary.

This also gives him some time to become known in the OUSA and within the

enforcement community. Once settled in the OUSA, the Specialist is prepared to begin implementing the ECE program.

Accumulate and Analyze Data. The Specialist's first objective in implementing the program is to obtain an overall picture of his district, the nature and

scope of its white-collar crime problem, and the resources available to combat

this problem. To complete this undertaking, the Specialist obtains: from investigating agencies, an inventory of active white-collar crime cases; from prosecutors, data on the impact and magnitude of pending and closed cases; and from various business organizations, consumer groups and State agencies,

demographic information, statistical data on economic conditions, and percep

tions of the areas in white-collar crime problems. This research effort is

accomplished at the discretion of the Specialist and may involve interviews, survey questionnaires developed by each Specialist, and an analysis of relevant reports, caseloads of the OUSA, and record systems of various agencies,

e.g., investigative files. This endeavor indicates the nature and scope of

the district's white-collar crime problem, forms the basis upon which district

priorities are selected, and introduces the program and the Specialist to the business and enforcement communities. This activity, which is estimated to take six months, culminates in the submission of a district report to OECE.

Communicate with the District. After the Specialist has acquired an understanding of the nature of his district's problem, he is prepared to adapt program features which best address those problems, and to explain to the various enforcement and interest organizations how the program is expected to benefit them. This liaison role and function of the Specialist is a key factor in achieving the objectives of maximizing the efficient use of law enforcement and prosecutorial resources in combatting white-collar crime. The

Specialist generally begins with the Federal enforcement agencies as a promoter for the program; he creates an interest, on the part of the agents, in participating in the program and encourages them to bring the OUSA potential criminal matters which they believe merit a joint investigator/prosecutor effort. When cases are brought to the attention of the Specialist, he reviews them, and in many instances, gives the agent his detailed analysis, suggesting how the case

can be made stronger and/or more complete, by gathering more or different types

of information, linking existing evidence or utilizing different methods of obtaining evidence. This is also the stage in which the Specialist can begin to expand the agent's awareness of other avenues of pursuit, either civil or administrative remedies, to address activities which do not warrant criminal prosecution. As the agent's understanding increases, the leads developed and cases brought to the OUSA should be stronger, and the Specialist should begin to coordinate specific case efforts, thus moving into the third phase of implementation.

"hile coordinating Federal investigative efforts, the Specialist should continue to expand his activities within his district. The study team found

that this expansion is generally conceived to include:

State and local investigative and prosecutive offices: to foster an atmosphere of cooperation and to delineate responsibilities for

avoiding duplication of effort or forfeiture of good cases, due to

a lack of coordination;

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Interest and advisory groups: to utilize most effectively resources

to develop and disseminate information concerning white-collar crime;

and

Professional and business organizations and the general public: to
increase their awareness of the magnitude of the white-collar crime

problem and to educate them as to methods of preventing and detecting possible criminal activities.

Once this effort is complete, it is expected that the Specialist would expand

his efforts into other districts in his region. (The Specialist's role in

other districts is discussed in detail in Chapter IV.)

Coordinate Efforts.

This phase marks the beginning of the Specialist's case

specific activities. Once a specific criminal activity has been targeted, the Specialist (and/or an ECE Unit AUSA) and the agents must develop a strategy which will result in the apprehension of the most significant criminal offenders and the strongest possible prosecution. This often requires the assistance of a multiplicity of investigative agencies to develop different angles to the case under the various criminal statutes they have traditionally investigated.

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