The Clash with Distant Cultures: Values, Interests, and Force in American Foreign Policy

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SUNY Press, 1 янв. 1995 г. - Всего страниц: 285
Whereas foreign policymaking is generally viewed as a rational, unemotional, and sophisticated process, this analysis of American policies toward the Persian Gulf, the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, and the Bosnian conflict suggests that the underlying and largely unexamined cultural values of most ordinary Americans play a major role in determining the United States' choice of force or negotiation in dealing with international problems. Payne examines the linkage between the United States' tendency to use force in foreign policy and the culture of violence in America. He argues that the costs of resolving conflicts militarily are likely to become more burdensome as economic competitors seek to take advantage of the U.S. tendency to demonstrate resolve primarily through the application of force. Post-Cold War challenges, Payne argues, call for a more nuanced combination of force and diplomacy. He finds hope in the fact that a strong component of American culture favors nonviolence, embraces humanitarianism, and if cultivated can contribute to the peaceful resolution of conflicts.

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Содержание

Foreign Policy Begins at Home Cultural Influences on US Behavior Abroad
1
Culture and Foreign Policy
4
Public Opinion and Foreign Policy
14
Ideology Myth and American Foreign Policy
18
American Exceptionalism and Foreign Policy
22
Church and State Inseparable
26
Race Culture and American Foreign Policy
31
Cultural Roots of Force in American Foreign Policy
35
Barriers to a Negotiated Settlement
106
Americas Impatience and Sanctions
112
Bushs March to War
115
War and Religion
118
The Enemy Must Be Destroyed
121
Avoiding Responsibility
126
America as a Redeemer Nation
128
The PalestinianIsraeli Conflict Negotiating Peace Patiently
131

The Link Between Internal and External Violence
38
Americas Historical Experiences and Its Use of Force
47
Americas Historical Experiences and the Rule of Law
54
A Culture of Violence
56
Television and the Culture of Violence
59
Sports Violence and Foreign Policy
61
Reinforcing the Culture of Violence
63
Flight from Responsibility
66
Americans Quest for Absolute Security
67
Foreign Poliomaking by Analogy
68
Cultural Barriers to International Negotiations
71
The Negotiation Process
75
American Perceptions of Diplomacy and American Exceptionalism
82
Isolationism Interdependence and Negotiations
87
Impatience as a Barrier to Negotiation
90
Operation Desert Storm No Negotiations No Compromise
93
American Perceptions of Arabs
96
Perception of the Threat
98
Hussein as Hitler
101
World War II and Vietnam
104
American Perceptions of and Cultural Links with Israel
134
American Perceptions of Palestinians
139
Ignoring UN Resolutions and the Rule of Law
141
Israels Violations of Human Rights in the Occupied Territories
147
Israeli Settlements in the Occupied Territories
153
Negotiating With Friends
155
War Brings Peace
162
Bosnia Cultural Distance and US Military Inaction
165
The Collision of Distant Cultures
166
Perception of the Threat
171
Downplaying the World War II Analogy
176
Ignoring the Rule of Law
179
Stressing the Vietnam Analogy
182
Arming the Bosnian Muslims
189
Rewarding Aggression?
193
Resolving Conflicts Peacefully
199
NOTES
215
BIBLIOGRAPHY
253
INDEX
267
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Richard J. Payne is Distinguished Professor in the Department of Political Science at Illinois State University. He is the author of Opportunities and Dangers of Soviet-Cuban Expansion: Toward a Pragmatic U.S. Policy, also published by SUNY Press; The Nonsuperpowers and South Africa; The West European Allies, the Third World, and U.S. Foreign Policy; and The Third World and South Africa: Post-Apartheid Challenges.

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