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(5) Jews have no right to be leaders of cultural institutions
of the state and community (theaters, galleries, etc.) or to be professors and teachers in German schools
and universities. (6) Jews have no right to be active in state or municipal
commissions for examinations, control, censorship, etc. Jews have no right to represent the German Reich in economic treaties; they have no right to be represented in the directorate of state banks or communal credit
establishments. (7) Foreign Jews have no right to settle in Germany per
manently. Their admission into the German political
community is to be forbidden under all circumstances. (8) Zionism should be energetically supported in order to
promote the departure of German Jews—in numbers to be determined annually—to Palestine or generally
across the border.” (2842-PS) Rosenberg's "Zionism" was neither sincere nor consistent, for in 1921 he advocated breaking up Zionism, “which is involved in English-Jewish politics.” (2432-PS). He advocated in 1921 the adoption by “all Germans” of the following slogans: “Get the Jews out of all parties. Institute measures for the repudiation of all citizenship rights of all Jews and half-Jews: banish all the Eastern Jews; exercise strictest vigilance over the native ones.
*" (2432-PS) Frick and other Nazis introduced a motion in the Reichstag on 27 May 1924, "to place all members of the Jewish race under special laws." (2840-PS). Frick also asked in the Reichstag, on 25 August 1924, for the realization of the Nazi program by "exclusion of all Jews from public office." (2893-PS)
c. ‘Anti-Semitism was seized upon by the Nazi conspirators as a convenient instrument to unite groups and classes of divergent views and interests under one banner.
Adolf Hitler described racial anti-Semitism as "a new creed for the masses” and its spreading among the German people as "the most formidable task to be accomplished by our movement." (2881-PS). Rosenberg called for the Zusammenraffen aller Deutschen zu einer stahlharten, voelkischen Einheitsfront" (gathering of all Germans into a steel-hard racial united front) on the basis of anti-Semitic slogans (2432-PS). Gotfried Feder, official commentator of the Nazi Party program, stated: “AntiSemitism is in a way the emotional foundation of our movement.” (2844-PS)
There are innumerable admissions on the part of the Nazi leaders as to the part which their anti-Semitic propaganda played in their acquisition of control. The following statement concerning the purpose of racial propaganda was made by Dr. Walter Gross, director of the Office of Racial Policy of the Nazi Party:
"In the years of fight, the aim was to employ all means of propaganda which promised success in order to gather people who were ready to overthrow, together with the Party, the harmful post-war regime and put the power into the hand of the Fuehrer and his collaborators.
In these years of fight the aim was purely political: I meant the overthrow of the regime and acquisition of power.
Within this great general task the education in racial thinking necessarily played a decisive part, because herein lies basically the deepest revolutionary nature of the
new spirit.” (2845-PS) In another official Nazi publication, recommended for circulation in all Party units and establishments, it is stated:
"The whole treatment of the Jewish problem in the years prior to our seizure of power is to be regarded essentially from the point of view of the political education of the German people.” (To disregard this angle of the use made of anti-Semitism means) “to disregard the success and aim of the work toward racial education.” (2427-PS)
D. After the acquisition of power the Nazi conspirators initiated a state policy of persecution of the Jews.
(1) The first organized act was the boycott of Jewish enterprises on 1 April 1933. The boycott action was approved by all the defendants who were members of the Reichsregierung (Reich Cabinet), and Streicher was charged with its execution. Presented as an alleged act of "self defense”, the boycott action was intended to frighten Jewish public opinion abroad and force it, by the threat of collective responsibility to all Jews in Germany, to desist from warning against the Nazi danger. (2409-PS; 2410PS)
The boycott was devised as a demonstration of the extent to which the Nazi Party controlled its members and the German masses; consequently, spontaneous action and physical violence were discouraged. Goebbels stated:
“The national-socialist leadership had declared: 'The boycott is legal, and the government demands that the people permit that the boycott be carried out legally. We expect iron discipline. This must be for the whole world a wonderful
show of unity and manly training. To those abroad who
(2) Laws eliminating Jews from various offices and functions. The Nazi conspirators legislative program was gradual and, in the beginning, relatively "moderate.” In the first period, which dates from 7 April 1933 until September 1935, the laws eliminated Jews from public office and limited their participation in schools, certain professions, and cultural establishments. The following are the major laws issued in this period:
Gesetz uber die uberfullung | Hitler
deutscher Schullen (Law Frick
Title and gist of law
Verordnung zur Durchfuehr- Pfundtner
ung des Gesetzes uber den (Asst. to Widerruf von Einbuerger- Frick) ungen
(Executing decree for the law about the Repeal of Naturalizations and the adjudication of German citizenship) defining Jews from Eastern Europe as "undesirable" and subject
Law) barring "non-Aryans" Goebbels
Armed Forces) barring berg
On 10 September 1935, Minister of Education Rust issued a circular ordering the complete elimination of Jewish pupils from "Aryan" schools (2894-PS). This legislative activity, in addition to being the first step towards the elimination of the Jews, served an “educational” purpose and was a further test of the extent of control exerted by the Nazi Party and regime over the German masses.
Dr. Achim Gercke, racial expert of the Ministry of the Interior, stated :
"The laws are mainly educational and give direction. The aspect of the laws should not be underestimated. The entire nation is enlightened on the Jewish problem; it learns to understand that the national community is a blood community; it understands for the first time the racial idea, and is diverted from a too theoretical treatment of the Jewish
problem and faced with the actual solution.” (2904-PS) It was clear, however, that the Nazi conspirators had a far more ambitious program in the Jewish problem and put off its realization for reasons of expediency. In the words of Dr. Gercke:
“Nevertheless the laws published thus far cannot bring a final solution of the Jewish problem, because the time has not yet come for it, although the decrees give the general direction and leave open the possibility of further developments.
"It would be in every respect premature now to work out
(3) Deprivation of Jews of their rights as citizens. After a propaganda barrage, in which the speeches and writings of Streicher were most prominent, the Nazi conspirators initiated the second period of anti-Jewish legislation (15 September 1935 to September 1938). In this period the Jews were deprived of their full rights as citizens (First Nurnberg Law) and forbidden to marry “Aryans” (Second Nurnberg Law). Further steps were taken to eliminate Jews from certain professions, and the groundwork was laid for the subsequent expropriation of Jewish property. These laws were hailed as the fulfillment of the Nazi Party program.
The major laws issued in this period are listed below: