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(3) They changed the curricula and textbooks.

Kindergarten: Children from two to six years were trained in more than 15,000 Kindergartens operated by the Party and State. The teachers in charge were trained in special schools that emphasized the ideological views of the Nazi Party. The children were given a systematic training in Nazi ideology. (2443-PS; 2441-PS)

Elementary schools: Primary emphasis was placed on physical training. History, German race culture and mathematics were the other subjects emphasized. These subjects were taught in such a way as to emphasize the cultural superiority of the German people, the importance of race, the Fuehrer principle, glorification of German war heros, the subversive elements that caused the defeat of Germany in World War I, the shame of the Versailles Treaty, and the rebirth of Germany under the Nazis. (2392-PS; 2397-PS; 2441-PS; 2394-PS)

In addition to education in the schools all children from six to ten years were registered in the Kindergruppen (Children's Groups) conducted by the National Socialist Frauenschaft (National Socialist Women's Organization). All children were required to obtain an efficiency record card and uniform and were instructed in Nazi ideology by the members of the Women's Organization. (2441-PS; 2452-PS)

High Schools (Hoeheren Schule): The curricula and organization of the Hoeheren School was modified by a series of decrees of the Minister of Education in order to make these schools effective instruments for the teaching of the Nazi doctrines. A new curricula emphasizing physical training, German war history, and race culture was introduced. (2453-PS)

Universities: The schools of politics and physical education became the largest colleges at the universities. Beginning in 1933 the Nazis introduced courses in heredity and race culture, ancient and modern German history, biology and geopolitics. (2443-PS; 2441-PS)

Textbooks in the schools were changed to accord with the expressed objectives of the Nazi conspirators. (2446-PS; 2442-PS; 2444-PS; 2445-PS)

(4) The Nazi conspirators acquired domination and control over all teachers. The law for the reestablishing of the professional civil service made it possible for the Nazi conspirators thoroughly to reexamine all German teachers and to remove all "harmful and untrustworthy” elements (1397-PS; 2392-PS). Many teachers and professors (mostly Jewish) were dismissed

and were replaced with “State spirited” teachers (2392-PS). All teachers were required to take an oath of loyalty and obedience to Hitler (2061-PS). All teachers were required to belong to the National Socialist Lehrerbund (National Socialist Teachers League), which organization was charged with the training of all teachers in the theories and doctrines of the NSDAP. (2452-PS)

In 1934 the National Socialist Teachers League was declared to be the official organ of German education. (2393-PS)

The Civil Service Act of 1937 required the teachers to be "the executors of the will of the party-supported State.” It required them to be ready at "any time to defend without reservation the National Socialist State.” The law required the teachers to participate strenuously in elections, have thorough knowledge of Party principles and literature, render the Hitler Salute, send their children to the Hitler Youth, and educate them in the Nazi spirit (2340-PS). Before taking their second examination (required for permanent appointment), teachers in Prussia were required to show service in the SA and in the Arbeitsdienst (Labor Seryice) (2392-PS). Candidates for teaching and other public positions were required to have “proved themselves" in the Hitler Jugend (2451-PS; 2900-PS). Teachers' academies were judged by the Minister of Education on their ability to turn out men and women with new ideas "based on blood and soil”. (2394-PS)

The leadership principle replaced the democratic school principle. A decree of the Reich Minister of Education made the head of any school fully responsible for the conduct of the institution in line with the official party ideology. Teachers committees and Student Committees were abolished (2393-PS; 2392-PS). A “confidential instructor," the school youth warden of the Hitler Jugend, appointed by the Hitler Youth authorities, was assigned to each school (2396-PS). The "Parents Advisory Committees" in the public schools were dissolved, and replaced by the "School Communities,” (Schulgemeinde). The headmaster was the leader. He appointed, after consultation with the local party leader, two to five teachers or parents, known as Jugendwalter," (Youth Advisors) and one Hitler Youth leader, who was appointed after consultation with the Hitler Youth officials in the district (2399-PS). The duties of the “School Community" were to bring to the attention of the public the educational objectives of the Nazi Party, including race questions, heredity indoctrination, physical training, and the Youth League activities. The function of advising the school authorities, formerly performed by the "Parents Advisory Committees," was eliminated by the decree. (2399-PS)

Universities: The Leadership Principle was introduced into the universities. The Rektor (head of the university) was appointed by the Reich Minister of Education for an unspecified period of time and was responsible only to the Reichs Minister. The University was divided into the Dozentenschaft (Lecturers Corps) and the Studentenschaft (Student Corps). The leaders of these two bodies were also appointed by the Reichsminister of Education (2394-PS). The teaching staff of the university was subject to the control of the National Socialist Dozentenbund (NSDOB) (Nazi Association of University Lecturers). The purposes of the NSDOB were:

(a) to take a decisive part in the selection of lecturers and to produce candidates for the teaching staff who were wholly Nazi in their outlook.

(b) to train all university lecturers in Nazi ideology,

(c) to see that the entire university life was run in accordance with the philosophy of the Party. (2452-PS; 318-PS)

All German students at the universities were required to belong to the Studentenschaft (Student Corps) (2084-PS). The Student Corps was responsible for making the students conscious of their duties to the Nazis, and was obliged to promote enrollment in the SA and labor service. Physical training of students was the responsibility of the SA. Political education was the responsibility of the National Socialistische Deutsche Studentenbund (NSDStB), (National Socialist German Student Bund) (2458-PS). The National Socialist Student Bund (NSDStB) was the Nazi "elite" of the student body and was responsible for the leadership of the university students, and all leaders of the Student Corps were appointed from its membership. The Nazi Student Bund was solely responsible for the entire ideological and political education of the students. (2395-PS; 2399-PS; 2441-PS; 2392-PS; 2393-PS)

B. The Nazi conspirators supplemented the school system by training the youth through the Hitler Jugend.

(1) The Nazi conspirators from their early days expressed their belief in the fundamental importance of controlling the education and training of youth. Hitler stated in Mein Kampf:

“It is precisely our German people, that today broken down, lies defenseless against the kicks of the rest of the world who need that suggestive force that lies in self-confidence. But this self-confidence has to be instilled into the young fellow-citizen from childhood on. His entire education and development has to be directed at giving him the conviction

of being absolutely superior to others. With this physical force and skill he has again to win the belief in the invincibility of his entire nationality. For what once led the German army to victory was the sum of the confidence which the individual and all in common had in their leaders. The confidence in the possibility of regaining its freedom is what will restore the German people. But this conviction must be the final product of the same feeling of millions of indi

viduals." (404-PS; see also 2901-PS) Again in Mein Kampf Hitler said:

“The racial State will have to see to it that there will be a generation which by a suitable education will be ready for the final and ultimate decision on this globe. The nation which enters first on this course will be the victorious one."

(404-PS) The law of the Hitler Youth provides in part as follows:

"The future of the German nation depends on its youth, and the German youth shall have to be prepared for its future duties. “The German youth besides being reared within the family and school, shall be educated physically, intellectually and morally in the spirit of National Socialism to serve the people

and community, through the Hitler Youth.” (1392-PS) On May 1, 1938 Hitler said in a speech to the youth:

"Since the victory of the Movement, under whose banner you stand, there has been completed within our people the unification of heart (innere Einigung) of the Germans. And as wages for this work of ours Providence has given us Greater Germany (Grossdeutschland). This unification is no gift of chance, it is the result of a systematic education of our people by the National Socialist Movement. . . . . And this education begins with the individual at an age when he is not already burdened with preconceived ideas. The youth is the stone which is to go to the building of our new Reich! You are Greater Germany! In you is being formed the community of the German people. Before the single leader there stands a Reich, before the single Reich stands a people, and before the single people stands German youth! When I see you my faith in the future of Germany has no bounds, nothing can shake it. For I know that you will fulfill all that we hope of you. So I greet you today on this 1st of May in our new great Germany: for you are our spring. In you will and shall be completed that for which generations and

s have striven, Germany!" (2454-PS)

(2) The Nazi conspirators destroyed or took over all other youth organizations. The first Nazi youth League (Nationalsocialistischen Jugendbund) was organized in 1922. In 1925 the Hitler Youth was officially recognized by the Nazi Party and be came a Junior Branch of the SA. In 1931 Baldur von Schirach was appointed Reichs Youth Leader of the NSDAP with the rank of SA Gruppenfuehrer. (1458PS)

When the Nazi conspirators came to power the Hitler Jugend was a minor organization among many youth associations in Germany. At the end of 1932 it had only 107,956 members-less than 5 percent of the total youth population of Germany (2435-PS). Schirach was appointed "Jugendfuehrer des Deutschen Reichs" (Youth Leader of the German Reich), in June 1933. In this position he was directly responsible to Hitler for the education and training of the German youth outside of the home and school in accordance with the ideology of the Nazi Party. (1458-PS)

In June of 1933 on orders of Schirach, an armed band of Hitler youths occupied by force the headquarters of the Reich Committee of The German Youth Associations and took over all files and personnel records of the youth leagues represented by the Committee. By the same method the offices and property (including all youth hostels in Germany) of the Reich Association for German Youth Hostels was seized, and a Nazi representative of Schirach put in charge (1458-PS). By decree dated 22 June 1933 Schirach dissolved the Grossdeutsches Bund and all of its affiliated organizations and took over their property; he dissolved The Reich Committee of The German Youth Associations, and required all other youth organizations to make a complete report of all organizational information, including names of all officers and members and inventory of all funds and property (2229-PS). The Youth Associations of all political parties and of all labor organizations were dissolved by decree of Schirach. By virtue of these decrees all youth organizations except those sponsored by the Catholic and Protestant Churches were abolished or incorporated in the Hitler Jugend (1458-PS; 2260-PS). The Nazi-appointed Reichsbishop Mueller entered into an agreement with Schirach which transferred all members of the Evangelical Youth to the Hitler Jugend and provided that the Hitler Jugend alone would provide the state political and physical education of the Protestant youth. By the end of 1933 only the Catholic Youth organization remained untouched. (1458-PS)

The Concordat entered into with the Holy See on July 20, 1933 provided for the continuance of the Catholic Youth Association

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