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the main purposes of the invasion was to steal the food and raw material needed for the Nazi war machine, regardless of the consequences to the Russian people which such robbery would entail, that doubt is dispelled by a memorandum showing clear and conscious recognition by the Nazis that their plans would no doubt result in starving to death millions of people. (2718-PS)

On 20 June 1941 General Thomas wrote a memorandum along a similar line, in which he stated that Keitel had confirmed to him Hitler's present conception of the German economic policy concerning raw materials (1456-PS). This policy expressed the theory that less manpower would be used in the conquest of sources of raw materials than would be necessary to produce synthetics in lieu of such raw materials. This memorandum reads, in part:

"The following is the new conception of the Fuehrer, which
Minister Todt has explained to me and which has been con-
firmed later on by Field Marshal Keitel:
“1. The course of the war shows that we went too far in our
autarchical endeavors. It is impossible to try and manu-
facture everything we lack, by synthetic procedures, or other
measures. For instance, it is impossible to develop our motor
fuel economy to a point where we can entirely depend on it.
All these autarchical endeavors ask for a tremendous amount
of manpower, and it is simply impossible to provide it. One
has to choose another way. What one does not have, but
needs, one must conquer. The commitment of men which is
necessary one single time, will not be as great as the one
that is currently needed for the running of the synthetic fac-
tories in question. The aim must also be to secure all terri-
tories, which are of special interest to us for the war econ-
omy, by conquering them.
"At the time the 4-year-plan was established, I issued the
statement where I made it clear that a completely autarchical
economy is impossible for us, because the need of men will
be too great. Nevertheless, my solution was always to pro-
vide the necessary reserves for missing stocks respectively
to secure the delivery in wartime through economic alliances.”

(1456PS) On this macabre note the story of this aggression comes to an end. In view of the solemn pledge of non-aggression; the base and sinister motives involved; the months of secret planning and preparation; and the suffering intentionally and deliberately wrought; it may perhaps not be too much to say that in the history of relations between sovereign nations, a blacker chap

ter has never been written than the one which tells of the Nazi conspirators' unprovoked invasion of the territory of the Soviet Union.

LEGAL REFERENCES AND LIST OF DOCUMENTS

RELATING TO AGGRESSION AGAINST THE USSR

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Top Secret Fuehrer Order No. 21
signed by Hitler and initialled by
Jodl, Warlimont and Keitel, .18
December 1940, concerning the
Invasion of Russia (case Bar-
barossa). (USA 31).

III
Top Secret Operational Order to
Order No. 21, signed by Keitel,
13 March 1941, concerning Direc-
tives for special areas. (USA 135). III
Top Secret Note, 20 October 1939,
on conference between Hitler and
Chief OKW concerning future re-
lations of Poland to Germany,
17 October 1939. (USA 609).... III
Correspondence between Keitel,
Rosenberg and Lammers, April
1941, concerning appointment of
Jodl and Warlimont as OKW rep-
resentatives with Rosenberg.
(USA 143)....

III
Memorandum of Discussion be-
tween the Fuehrer and the OKW,
concerning case “Barbarossa" and
"Sonnenblume" (African opera-
tion). (USA 134)..

III
Top secret memorandum of dis-
cussion with the Chief “L”, 30
April 1941, about the invasion of
Russia. (USA 137)....

III
Draft letter to Todt, initialled K,
J, and W, 9 March 1941, concern-
ing Deception measures..

III
Letter from Keitel, 12 May 1941,
concerning Deception of the
enemy.....

III Fuehrer decree, 13 May 1941, on courts martial and treatment of enemy civilians in the district

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"Barbarossa", signed by Keitel
for Hitler, and initialled by Jodl... III
Memorandum entitled "Memorial
No. 1 regarding USSR”, 2 April
1941, found in Rosenberg's "Rus-
sia File". (USA 142).

III
Appendix to Memorandum No. 2.
Recommendation as to the per-
sonnel for the Reich Commis-
sariats in the East and for the
Political Central Office in Berlin,
7 April 1941. (USA 823).

III
Paper entitled "Instructions for a
Reich Commissar in the Baltic
States”, 8 May 1941, found in
Rosenberg's "Russia File". (USA
145)....!

III
General instructions for all Reich
Commissars in the Occupied East-
ern Territories, 8 May 1941, found
in Rosenberg file. (USA 144). III
Minutes of discussion concerning
Construction and Administration,
22 June 1941.....

III
Report concerning preparatory
work regarding problems in East-
ern Territories, 28 June 1941,
found in Rosenberg's “Russia
File”. (USA 146).....

III
Excerpt from a speech, 20 June
1941, by Rosenberg before people
most intimately concerned with
Eastern Problem, found in his
"Russia File". (USA 147)

III
Report to Goering from Chief of
Office for War Mobilization of
Economy, 19 March 1941...

III
Report on conference, 29 April
1941, concerning top secret plan

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for Economic exploitation of
Soviet Areas (Oldenburg Plan).
(USA 141)....
OKW Directive to the German
Intelligence Service in the East,
signed by Jodl, 6 September 1940.
(USA 130).....
Top secret note for files on confer-
ence of 21 March 1941 concerning
employment of Quartermaster

...
Top secret notes taken by Hamann
of a discussion of the economic
exploitation of Russia, presided
over by General Thomas, 28 Feb-
ruary 1941. (USA 140).
Thomas memorandum 20 June
1941; Keitel consulted about re-
sources of USSR. (USA 148)....
Memorandum from Rosenberg
concerning discussion with the
Fuehrer, 14 December 1941. (USA
824)..
Annex 1 to report of Chief of Gen-
eral Staff of the Army, 5 December
1940, concerning planned opera-
tion in the East. (USA 131)..
Report on conference between
Ribbentrop and Oshima, 23 Feb-
ruary 1941. (USA 129)..
Extracts from General Thomas'
Basic Facts for History of German
War and Armament Economy.
(USA 35)...
Memorandum "About the result
of today's discussion with State
Secretaries about Barbarossa", 2
May 1941. (USA 32)....
Affidavit of General Ernst Koest-

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