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ring, former German military at-
tache in Moscow, concerning
planning for the attack on the
USSR in early August 1940.....
Affidavit of General Warlimont,
21 November 1945, stating that
first directive for campaign against
USSR was issued in August 1940..
Affidavit of General Walter Warli-
mont, 21 November 1945, stating
that the projected campaign
against USSR was first made
known to him at conference with
Jodl, 29 July 1940......
"The Nazi Plan”, script of a mo-
tion picture composed of captured
German film. (USA 167)....
Memorandum, signed Schnurre,
on the status of deliveries under
German-Russian economic agree-
ment, 28 September 1940.....
Entries in Naval War Diary, con-
cerning operation "Barbarossa"
and "Marita". (USA 133).
Entry in Naval War Diary, Janu-
ary 1941, p. 401. (USA 132).
References to operation "Bar-
barossa" in the German Naval
War Diary, June 1941..
Letter, 13 June 1941, requesting
decision on action against enemy
submarines and Order to attack
Soviet submarines, 15 June 1941.
Timetable for Barbarossa, ap-
proved by Hitler and signed by
Keitel. (USA 138)..
Covering letters and Order of 13
May 1941, signed by Keitel on
ruthless treatment of civilians in
the USSR for offenses committed
by them. (USA 554; GB 162)..
Order signed by Keitel, 27 July
1941, for destruction of all copies
of Order of 13 May 1941 (docu-
ment C-50) without affecting its
Order signed by Keitel, 20 Sep-
tember 1940, concerning Military
Missions to Rumania....
Fuehrer Order, 23 May 1941, con-
cerning military activities in Ru-
Memorandum from Chief of High
Command to Navy High Com-
mand, 18 May 1941. (GB 146).... VI *C-78
Schmundt's Order of 9 June 1941,
convening conference on Barba-
rossa on 14 June. (USA 139)... VI C-150
Letter from Hitler to General
Antonescu, 18 June 1941...
File of Russo-German relations
found in OKM files covering period
25 August 1939 to 22 June 1941.
"The Strategic Position at the Be-
ginning of the 5th Year of War", a
lecture delivered by Jodl on 7 No-
vember 1943 at Munich to Reich
and Gauleiters. (USA 34)..... VII *TC-25
Non-aggression Treaty between
Germany and USSR and an-
nouncement of 25 September 1939
relating to it. (GB 145).
Statement XIV Hungarian Relations with Ger-
many Before and During the War
by Nicholas Horthy, Jr., Nurn-
berg, 22 February 1946..
13. COLLABORATION WITH ITALY AND JAPAN AND AGGRESSIVE WAR AGAINST THE UNITED STATES: NOVEMBER
1936 TO DECEMBER 1941
In the course of two years, the swastika had been carried forward by force of arms from a tightly controlled and remilitarized Germany to the four corners of Europe. The conspirators then projected the Nazi plan upon a universal screen, involving the old World of Asia and the New World of the United States of America. As a result, the wars of aggression that were planned in Berlin and launched across the frontiers of Poland ended some six years later, almost to the day, in surrender ceremonies aboard a United States battleship riding at anchor in the Bay of Tokyo.
A. Formal German_Japanese-Italian Alliances.
The first formal alliance between Hitler's Germany and the Japanese Government was the Anti-Comintern Pact signed in Berlin on 25 November 1936 (2508-PS). This agreement, on its face, was directed against the activities of the Communist International. It was subsequently adhered to by Italy on 6 November 1937 (2506-PS).
It is an interesting fact-especially in light of the evidence to be presented regarding Ribbentrop's active participation in collaboration with the Japanese—that Ribbentrop signed the AntiComintern Pact for Germany, at Berlin, even though at that time, November 1936, Ribbentrop was not the German Foreign Minister, but simply Hitler's Special Ambassador Plenipotentiary.
On 27 September 1940, some four years after the Anti-Comintern Pact was signed and one year after the initiation of war in Europe, the German, Italian, and Japanese Governments signed another pact at Berlin-a ten-year military-economic alliance (2643-PS). Again Ribbentrop signed for Germany, this time in his capacity as Foreign Minister: This Tripartite Pact pledged
Germany, Italy, and Japan to support of, and collaboration with each other in the establishment of a "new order" in Europe and East Asia. The agreement stated, in part:
“The Governments of Germany, Italy, and Japan consider
it as a condition precedent of a lasting peace, that each nation
of the world be given its own proper place. They have there-
fore decided to stand together and to cooperate with one an-
other in their efforts in Greater East Asia and in the re-
gions of Europe, wherein it is their prime purpose to estab-
lish and maintain a new order of things calculated to pro-
mote the prosperity and welfare of the peoples there. Further-
more, it is the desire of the three Governments to extend this
cooperation to such nations in other parts of the world as
are inclined to give to their endeavors a direction similar
to their own, in order that their aspirations towards world
peace as the ultimate goal may thus be realized. Accord-
ingly, the Governments of Germany, Italy, and Japan have
agreed as follows:
"Article 1: Japan recognizes and respects the leadership of
Germany and Italy in the establishment of a new order in
"Article 2: Germany and Italy recognize and respect the
leadership of Japan in the establishment of a new order in
Greater East Asia.
“Article 3: Germany, Italy, and Japan agree to cooperate in
their efforts on the aforesaid basis. They further undertake
to assist one another with all political, economic and mili-
tary means, if one of the three Contracting Parties is at-
tacked by a Power at present not involved in the European
war or in the Chinese-Japanese conflict.”
“Article 6: The present Pact shall come into force immediately upon signature and shall remain in force for ten years
from the date of its coming into force." (26.43-PS) The Tripartite Pact of 27 September 1940 thus was a bold announcement to the world that the leaders of Germany, Japan, and Italy had cemented a full military alliance to achieve world domination and to establish the "new order" presaged by the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the Italian conquest of Ethiopia in 1935, and the Nazi overflow into Austria early in 1938.
A statement by Cordell Hull, Secretary of State of the United States at the time of the signing of the Tripartite Pact, is relevant in this connection. Mr. Hull declared:
"The reported agreement of alliance does not, in the view of
the Government of the United States, substantially alter a
situation which has existed for several years. Announce-
ment of the alliance merely makes clear to all a relationship
which has long existed in effect and to which this Govern-
ment has repeatedly called attention. That such an agree-
ment has been in process of conclusion has been well known
for some time, and that fact has been fully taken into ac-
count by the Government of United States in the determin-
ing of this country's policies." (2944–PS)
No attempt is made here to trace the relationships and nego-
tiations leading up to the Tripartite Pact of 27 November 1940.
Nevertheless, one example of the type of German-Japanese rela-
tionship existing before the formalization of the Tripartite Pact
is noteworthy—the record of a conversation of 31 January 1939
between Himmler and General Oshima, Japanese Ambassador at
Berlin. This record, which is signed by Himmler in crayon, reads:
"Today I visited General Oshima. The conversation ranged
over the following subjects:
"1. The Fuehrer speech, which pleased him very much, es-
pecially because it had been spiritually warranted in all its
“2. We discussed conclusion of a treaty to consolidate the
triangle Germany/Italy Japan into an even firmer mold. He
also told me that, together with German counter-espionage
(Abwehr), he was undertaking long-range projects aimed at
the disintegration of Russia and emanating from the Cau-
casus and the Ukraine. However, this organization was to
become effective only in case of war.
"3. Furthermore he had succeeded up to now to send 10 Rus-
sians with bombs across the Caucasian frontier. These Rus-
sians had the mission to kill Stalin. A number of additional
Russians, whom he had also sent across, had been shot at
the frontier.” (2195-PS)
B. Nazi Encouragement of Aggression by Japan
The Nazi conspirators, once their military and economic alliance with Japan had been formalized, exhorted the Japanese to aggression against those nations with whom they were at war and against those with whom they contemplated war. In this the Nazi conspirators pursued a course strikingly parallel to that followed in their relationship with the other member of the European Axis. On 10 June 1940, in fulfillment of her alliance with Germany, Italy had carried out her "stab in the back" by declar