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Mowb. However heaven, or fortune, cast my lot, There lives, or dies, true to king Richard's throne, A loyal, just, and upright gentleman. Never did captive with a freer heart Cast off his chains of bondage, and embrace His golden uncontrould enfranchisement, More than my dancing foul doth celebrate This feast of battle, with mine adversary.-Most mighty licge, and my companion peers, Take from my mouth the wish of happy years : As gentle and as jocund, as to jest , Go I to fight : truth hath a quiet breast.

K. Rich. Farewell, my lord : securely I espy Virtue with valour couched in thine eye.-Order the trial, marshal, and begin.

Mar. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby, Receive thy lance; and heaven defend thy right!

Boling. Strong as a tower in hope, I cry-Amen.
Mar. Go bear this lance to Thomas duke of Nor-

folk. 1 Her. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby, Stands here for God, his sovereign, and himself, On pain to be found false and recreant, To prove the duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray, A traitor to his God, his king, and him ; And dares him to fet forward to the fight. 2 Her. Here standeth Thomas Mowbray, duke of

On pain to be found false and recreant,
Both to defend himself, and to approve
Henry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby,
To God, his sovereign, and to him, disloyal ;

As gentle and as jocund, as to JEST, ] Not so neither. We should read, to just; i. e, to tilt or tournay, which was a kind of sport too. WARBURTON.

The sense would perhaps have been better if the author had written what his commentator substitutes; but the rhyme, to which sense is too often enslaved, obliged Shakespeare to write jel, and obliges us to read it. JOHNSON.


Courageously, and with a free desire,
Attending but the signal to begin. [A charge founded.
Mar. Sound, trumpets; and set forward, com-

batants. -Stay, the king hath thrown his warder down. K. Ricb. Let them lay by their helmets, and their

And both return back to their chairs again :
Withdraw with us; and let the trumpets found,
While we return these dukes what we decree.

[A long flourish; after which, the king

Speaks to the combatants. Draw nearAnd list, what with our council we have done. For that our kingdom's earth should not be soild With that dear blood which it hath fostered; And, for our eyes do hate the dire aspect Of civil wounds plough'd up with neighbour swords ; [? And for we think, the eagle-winged pride Of sky-aspiring and ambitious thoughts With rival-hating envy set you on, To wake our peace $, which in our country's cradle


And for we think, the eagle-winged pride, &c.] These five verses are omitted in the other editions, and restored from the first of 1598. Pope. & Fo wake our peace,

which thus rouz'd up

Might fright fair peace,] Thus the sentence stands in the common reading, absurdly enough; which made the Oxford Editor, instead of fright fair peace, read, be affrighted; as if these latter words could ever, poisibly, have been blundered into the former by transcribers." But his business is to alter as' his fancy leads him, not to reform errors, as the text and rules of criticism direct: In a word then, the true original of the blunder was this: the editors before Mr. Pope had taken their editions from the folios, in which the text ftcod thus,

the dire aspekt
Of civil wounds plough'd up with neighbour swords ;
Which thus rouz'd up-

- fright fair peace. VOL.V.



Draws the sweet infant breath of gentle Neep ;]
Which so rouz’d up with boisterous untun'd drums;
And harsh-resounding trumpets' dreadful bray,
And grating shock of wrathful iron arms,
Might from our quiet confines fright fair peace,
And make us wade even in our kindred's blood :
Therefore, we banish you our territories.-
You, cousin Hereford; upon pain of death,
Till twice five summers have enrich'd our fields,
Shall not regreet our fair dominions,
But tread the stranger paths of banishment.
Boling. Your will be done. This must my

comfort be That sun, that warms you here, shall shine on me;

This is fenfe. But Mr. Pope, who carefully examined the first printed plays in quarto (very much to the advantage of his edition) coming to this place, found five lines, in the first edition of this play printed in 1598, omitted in the first general collection of the poet's works; and, not enough attending to their agreement with the common text, put them into their place. Whereas, in truth, the five lines were omitted by Shakespeare himself, as not agreeing to the rest of the context; which; on revise, he thought fit to alter. On this account I have put them into hooks, not as spurious, but as rejected on the author's revise ; and, indeed, with great judgment; for,

To wake our peace, which in our country's cradle

Draws the Javieet infant breath of gentle sleep, as pretty as it is in the image, is absurd in the sense: for peace awake is still pcace, as well as when alleep. The difference is, that peace alleep gives one the notion of a happy people funk in Noth and luxury, which is not the idea the speaker would raise, and from which state the fooner it was awaked the better.

WARBURTON To this note, written with such an appearance of taste and judgment, I am afraid every reader will not subscribe. It is true, that peace awake is still peace, as well as when asleep; but peace awakened by the tumults of these jarring nobles, and peace indulging in profound tranquillity, convey images sufficiently opposed to each other for the poet's purpose. To wake peace is to introduce discord. Peace asleep, is peace exerting its natural influence, from which it would be frighted by the clamours of was, STLEVENS.


And those his golden beams, to you here lent,
Shall point on me, and gild my banishment.

K. Rich. Norfolk, for thee remains a heavier doom,
Which I with some unwillingness pronounce.
The Ay-flow hours shall not determinate
The dateless limit of thy dear exile :
The hopeless word, of never to return,
Breathe I against thee, upon pain of life.

Mowb. X heavy sentence, my most sovereign liege, And all unlook'd for from your highness' mouth. A dearer merit, not so deep a maimo, As to be cast forth in the common air, Have I deserved at your highness' hands. The language I have learn’d these forty years, My native English, now I must forego: And now my tongue's use is to me no more, Than an unstringed viol, or a harp ; Or, like a cunning instrument cas'd up, Or, being open, put into his hands That knows no touch to tune the harmony.



have engaold my tongue, Doubly portcullis’d with my teeth and lips ; And duls, unfeeling, barren ignorance Is made my gaoler co attend on me. I am too old to fawn upon a nurse, Too far in years to be a pupil how; What is thy sentence then, but speechless death, Which robs my tongue from breathing native breath?

K. Rich. It boots thee not to be compassionate ' ; After our sentence, plaining comes too late.

Within my

A dearer merit, not so deep a maim, Have I deserved a -] To deserve a merit is a phrafe of which I know not any example. I wish fome copy would exhibit,

A dearer mede, and not so deep a maim. To deferve a mede or reward, is regular and easy. Johnson. compasionate ;] for plaintive. WARBURTON. I 2


RICHARD II. Mowb. Then thus I turn me from my country's

light, To dwell in solemn shades of endlefs night.

K. Rich. Return again, and take an oath with ye.
Lay on your royal sword your banish'd hands;
Swear by the duty that you owe to heaven,
* (Our

part therein we banish with yourselves)
To keep the oath that we administer. -
You never shall, so help you truth and heaven!
Embrace each other's love in banishment;
Nor ever look upon each other's face ;
Nor ever write, regreet, or reconcile
This lowering tempest of your

home-bred hate
Nor ever by advised purpose meet,
To plot, contrive, or complot any ill,
'Gainst us, our state, our subjects, or our land.

Boling. I swear.
Mowb. And I, to keep all this.

Boling. 3 Norfolk—so far, as to mine enemy-
By this time, had the king permitted us,
One of our souls had wandered in the air,
Banish'd this frail sepulchre of our flesh,
As now our flesh is banish'd from this land:
Confess thy treasons, ere thou fly this realm ;

? (Our part, &c.] It is a question much debated amongit the writers of the law of nations, whether a banish'd man may be ftill tied in allegiance to the state which sent him into exile. Tully and lord chancellor Clarendon declare for the affirmative : Hobbs and Puffendorf hold the negative. Our author, by this line, seems to be of the fame opinion. WARBURTON.

3 Norfolk- far, &c.] I do not clearly see what is the sense of this abrupt line ; but suppose the meaning to be this. Hereford immediately after his oath of perpetual enmity addresses Norfolk, and, fearing some misconstruction, turns to the king and says so far as to mine enemy-that is, I should say nothing to bim but what enemies may say to each other.

Reviewing this paffage, I rather think it should be understood thus. Norfolk, so far I have addressed myself to thee as to mine enemy, I now utter my last words with kindness and tenderness, Confefs tby treasons. JOHNSON,

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