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Mowb. However heaven, or fortune, cast my lot, There lives, or dies, true to king Richard's throne, A loyal, just, and upright gentleman. Never did captive with a freer heart Cast off his chains of bondage, and embrace His golden uncontrould enfranchisement, More than my dancing foul doth celebrate This feast of battle, with mine adversary.-Most mighty licge, and my companion peers, Take from my mouth the wish of happy years : As gentle and as jocund, as to jest , Go I to fight : truth hath a quiet breast.
K. Rich. Farewell, my lord : securely I espy Virtue with valour couched in thine eye.-Order the trial, marshal, and begin.
Mar. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby, Receive thy lance; and heaven defend thy right!
Boling. Strong as a tower in hope, I cry-Amen.
folk. 1 Her. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby, Stands here for God, his sovereign, and himself, On pain to be found false and recreant, To prove the duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray, A traitor to his God, his king, and him ; And dares him to fet forward to the fight. 2 Her. Here standeth Thomas Mowbray, duke of
As gentle and as jocund, as to JEST, ] Not so neither. We should read, to just; i. e, to tilt or tournay, which was a kind of sport too. WARBURTON.
The sense would perhaps have been better if the author had written what his commentator substitutes; but the rhyme, to which sense is too often enslaved, obliged Shakespeare to write jel, and obliges us to read it. JOHNSON.
Courageously, and with a free desire,
batants. -Stay, the king hath thrown his warder down. K. Ricb. Let them lay by their helmets, and their
[A long flourish; after which, the king
Speaks to the combatants. Draw nearAnd list, what with our council we have done. For that our kingdom's earth should not be soild With that dear blood which it hath fostered; And, for our eyes do hate the dire aspect Of civil wounds plough'd up with neighbour swords ; [? And for we think, the eagle-winged pride Of sky-aspiring and ambitious thoughts With rival-hating envy set you on, To wake our peace $, which in our country's cradle
And for we think, the eagle-winged pride, &c.] These five verses are omitted in the other editions, and restored from the first of 1598. Pope. & Fo wake our peace,
which thus rouz'd up
Might fright fair peace,] Thus the sentence stands in the common reading, absurdly enough; which made the Oxford Editor, instead of fright fair peace, read, be affrighted; as if these latter words could ever, poisibly, have been blundered into the former by transcribers." But his business is to alter as' his fancy leads him, not to reform errors, as the text and rules of criticism direct: In a word then, the true original of the blunder was this: the editors before Mr. Pope had taken their editions from the folios, in which the text ftcod thus,
the dire aspekt
- fright fair peace. VOL.V.
Draws the sweet infant breath of gentle Neep ;]
comfort be That sun, that warms you here, shall shine on me;
This is fenfe. But Mr. Pope, who carefully examined the first printed plays in quarto (very much to the advantage of his edition) coming to this place, found five lines, in the first edition of this play printed in 1598, omitted in the first general collection of the poet's works; and, not enough attending to their agreement with the common text, put them into their place. Whereas, in truth, the five lines were omitted by Shakespeare himself, as not agreeing to the rest of the context; which; on revise, he thought fit to alter. On this account I have put them into hooks, not as spurious, but as rejected on the author's revise ; and, indeed, with great judgment; for,
To wake our peace, which in our country's cradle
Draws the Javieet infant breath of gentle sleep, as pretty as it is in the image, is absurd in the sense: for peace awake is still pcace, as well as when alleep. The difference is, that peace alleep gives one the notion of a happy people funk in Noth and luxury, which is not the idea the speaker would raise, and from which state the fooner it was awaked the better.
WARBURTON To this note, written with such an appearance of taste and judgment, I am afraid every reader will not subscribe. It is true, that peace awake is still peace, as well as when asleep; but peace awakened by the tumults of these jarring nobles, and peace indulging in profound tranquillity, convey images sufficiently opposed to each other for the poet's purpose. To wake peace is to introduce discord. Peace asleep, is peace exerting its natural influence, from which it would be frighted by the clamours of was, STLEVENS.
And those his golden beams, to you here lent,
K. Rich. Norfolk, for thee remains a heavier doom,
Mowb. X heavy sentence, my most sovereign liege, And all unlook'd for from your highness' mouth. A dearer merit, not so deep a maimo, As to be cast forth in the common air, Have I deserved at your highness' hands. The language I have learn’d these forty years, My native English, now I must forego: And now my tongue's use is to me no more, Than an unstringed viol, or a harp ; Or, like a cunning instrument cas'd up, Or, being open, put into his hands That knows no touch to tune the harmony.
have engaold my tongue, Doubly portcullis’d with my teeth and lips ; And duls, unfeeling, barren ignorance Is made my gaoler co attend on me. I am too old to fawn upon a nurse, Too far in years to be a pupil how; What is thy sentence then, but speechless death, Which robs my tongue from breathing native breath?
K. Rich. It boots thee not to be compassionate ' ; After our sentence, plaining comes too late.
A dearer merit, not so deep a maim, Have I deserved a -] To deserve a merit is a phrafe of which I know not any example. I wish fome copy would exhibit,
A dearer mede, and not so deep a maim. To deferve a mede or reward, is regular and easy. Johnson. compasionate ;] for plaintive. WARBURTON. I 2
RICHARD II. Mowb. Then thus I turn me from my country's
light, To dwell in solemn shades of endlefs night.
K. Rich. Return again, and take an oath with ye.
part therein we banish with yourselves)
Boling. I swear.
Boling. 3 Norfolk—so far, as to mine enemy-
? (Our part, &c.] It is a question much debated amongit the writers of the law of nations, whether a banish'd man may be ftill tied in allegiance to the state which sent him into exile. Tully and lord chancellor Clarendon declare for the affirmative : Hobbs and Puffendorf hold the negative. Our author, by this line, seems to be of the fame opinion. WARBURTON.
3 Norfolk- far, &c.] I do not clearly see what is the sense of this abrupt line ; but suppose the meaning to be this. Hereford immediately after his oath of perpetual enmity addresses Norfolk, and, fearing some misconstruction, turns to the king and says so far as to mine enemy-that is, I should say nothing to bim but what enemies may say to each other.
Reviewing this paffage, I rather think it should be understood thus. Norfolk, so far I have addressed myself to thee as to mine enemy, I now utter my last words with kindness and tenderness, Confefs tby treasons. JOHNSON,