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for the old pike, I see no reason in the law of nature, but I may Inap at him. Let time shape, and there's


an end.



Changes to a forest in Yorkshire.

Enter the archbishop of York, Mowbray, Haftings, and




great affairs,

THAT is this forest call'd ?
Haft. 'Tis Gualtree forest, an't shall please

your grace.
York. Here stand, my lords, and send discoverers

forth To know the numbers of our enemies.

Haft. We have sent forth already.

York. 'Tis well done.
My friends, and brethren in these
I must acquaint you, that I have receiv'd
New-dated letters from Northumberland ;
Their cold intent, tenour, and substance, thus.-
Here doth he wish his perfon, with such powers
As might hold fortance with his quality,
The which he could not levy; whereupon
He is retir'd, to ripe his growing fortunes,
To Scotland : and concludes in hearty prayers

your attempts may over-live the hazard And fearful meeting of their opposite. Mowb. Thus do the hopes we have in him, touch

And dash themselves to pieces.


Enter a Messenger.
Haft. Now, what news?

Mel. Weft of this forest, scarcely off a mile,
In goodly form comes on the enemy:
And, by the ground they hide, I judge their number
Upon, or near, the rate of thirty thousand.

Mowb. The just proportion that we gave them out. * Let us sway on, and face them in the field.

Enter Westmorland.
York. What well-appointed leader fronts us here?
Mowb. I think it is my lord of Westmorland.

West. Health and fair greeting from our general,
The prince, lord John, and duke of Lancaster.

York. Say on, my lord of Westmorland, in peace : What doth concern your coming ?

West. Then, my lord,
Unto your grace do I in chief address
The substance of my speech. If that rebellion
Came like itself, in base and abject routs,
2 Led on by bloody youth, 3 guarded with rage,


· Let us sway on,

-] We should read, way on; i. e. march on. WARBURTON.

I know not that I have ever seen fway in this sense; but I believe it is the true word, and was intended to express the uniform and forcible motion of a compact body. There is a sense of the noun in Milton kindred to this, where, speaking of a weighty sword, he fays, “ It descends with huge two-handed fway." JOHNSON.

2 Led on by bloody youth,-) I believe Shakespeare wrote heady youth. WARBURTON.

Bloody youth is only fanguine youth, or youth full of blood, and of those passions which blood is supposed to incite or nourifh. JOHNSON.

guarded with rage. ] Guarded is an expression taken from dress, it means the same as faced, turned up. Mr. Pope, who has been followed by fucceeding editors, reads graded. Guarded is the reading both of quarto and folio. Shakespeare uses the same expression in the former part of this play :

Ff 2

" Veivet


And countenanc'd by boys and beggary;
I say, if damn'd commotion fo appear'd
In his true, native, and most proper shape,
You, reverend father, and thefe noble lords,
Had not been here to dress the ugly form
Of base and bloody insurrection
With your fair honours. You, lord archbishop,
Whose see is by a civil peace maintain'd ;
Whose beard the silver hand of peace hath touch'd ;
Whose learning and good letters peace hath tutorid;
Whose white investments figure innocence,
The dove and very blessed spirit of peace,
Wherefore do you so ill translate yourself,
Out of the speech of peace, that bears such grace,
Into the harsh and boist'rous tongue of war?
Turning your books to 4 graves, your ink to blood,
Your pens to launces; and your tongue divine
To a loud trumpet, and a point of war?

York. 5 Wherefore do I this ? so the question stands.
Briefly, to this end. We are all diseas'd;
And with our surfeiting and wanton hours
Have brought ourselves into a burning fever,

“ Velvet guards and Sunday citizens,” &c. Again, in The Merchant of Venice, “ Let him have a livery more guarded than his fellows."

STEEVENS. 4.-graves-} For graves Dr. Warburton very plaufibiy reads gloves, and is followed by Sir Thomas Hanmer. JOUNS.

We might perhaps as plausibly read greaves, i.e. armour for the legs, a kind of boots. In one of the Discourses on the Art Military, written by Sir John Smythe, Knight, 1589, greaves are inentioned as necessary to be worn ; and Ben Jonson employs the same word in his Hymenci :

upon their legs they wore silver greaves.” Steevens. s Wherifore, &c.] In this speech, after the first two lines, the next twenty-five are either omitted in the first edition, or aduel in the fecond. The answer, in which both the editions 2gree, apparently refers to some of these lines, which therefore may be probably fuppofed rather to have been dropped by a player defirous to horten his speech, than added by the fe(und labour of the author. JOHNSON,


And we must bleed for it : of which disease
Our late king, Richard, being infected, dy'd.
But, my most noble lord of Westmorland,
I take not on me here as a physician;
Nor do I, as an enemy to peace,
Troop in the throngs of military men :
But, rather, shew a while like fearful war,
To diet rank minds, sick of happiness ;
And purge the obstructions, which begin to stop
Our very veins of life. Hear me more plainly.
I have in equal balance justly weigh'd
What wrongs our arms may do, what wrongs we suffer;
And find our griefs heavier than our offences.
We fee which way the stream of time doth run, ,
6 And are enforc'd from our most quiet sphere,
By the rough torrent of occasion :
And have the summary of all our griefs,
When time shall serve, to shew in articles;
Which, long ere this, we offer’d to the king,
And might by no fuit gain our audience.
When we are wrong'd, and would unfold our griefs,
We are deny'd access unto his person,
Even by those men that most have done us wrong.
The danger of the days but newly gone,
(Whose memory is written on the earth
With yet appearing blood) and the examples
Of every minute's instance (present now)
Have put us in these ill-beseeming arms,
Not to break peace, or any branch of it,
But to establis here a peace, indeed,
Concurring both in name and quality.

6 In former editions:

And are inforc'd from our most quiet there,) This is said in answer to Wellmorland's upbraiding the archbishop for engaging in a course which so ill became his profession,

you, my lord archbishop, Il bofe fee is by a civil peace mainiain’d, &c. So that the reply must be this, And are enforc'd from our most quiet sphere. WARBURT.



West. When ever yet was your appeal deny’d?
Wherein have you been galled by the king ?
What peer hath been suborn’d to grate on you,
That you should seal this lawless bloody book
Of forg'd rebellion with a feal divine,
7 And consecrate commotion's civil edge ?

York. 8 My brother-general, the common-wealth,
To brother born an household cruelty,
I make my quarrel in particular.

7 And confecrate, &c.] In one of my old quarto's of 1600 (for I have two of the self fame edition ; one of which, it is evident, was corrected in some passages during the working off the whole impresion). I found this verse. I have ventured to subftitute fage for edge, with regard to the uniformity of metaphor. Though the fuord of rebellion, drawn by a bishop, may in some fort be said to be confecrited by his reverence. THEOBALD.

And confecrate commotion's civil edge:] So the old books read. But Mr. Theobald changes edge to page, out of regard to the uniformity (as he calls it) of the metaphor. But he did not underliand what was meant by edge. It was an old custom, continued from the time of the first croisades, for the pope to consecrate the general's sword, which was employed in the service of the church. To this custom the line in question alludes. As to the cant of uniformity of metaphoș in writing, this is to be observed, that changing the allusion in the fame sentence is in, deed vicious, and what Quintilian condemns, “ Malti quum “ initium à tempestate sumferint, incendio aut ruinâ finiunt.” But when one comparison or allusion is fairly separated from another, by difiinct sentences, the case is different, So it is here; in one fentence we see “ the book of rebellion ftampt with a “ fcal divine;' in the other, “ the sword of civil discord confeciated.” But this change of the metaphor is not only al. lowable, but sit. For the dwelling overlong upon one, occations the discourse to degenerate into a dull kind of allegoriím.

WARBURTON, What Mr, Theobald says of two editions seems to be true; for my copy reads, commotion's bitter edge; but ciril is undoubtedly right, and cne would wonder how bitter could intrude if civil had been written first; perhaps the author himself made the change. JONnson.

Since I began to print this play, I have seen both the copies, but they both concur in reading bitter. Uniefs there be a third çopy, Theobald has said what is not true. STEEVENS.

My brother generel, &c.! make my quarrel in particular.] The sense is this, “ " brother general, the common-wealth, which ought to diftri

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