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Thou little valiant, great in villainy !
Thou ever strong upon the stronger side !
Thou fortune's champion, that dost never fight
But when her humourous ladyship is by
To teach thee safety! thou art perjur'd too,
And sooth'st up greatness. What a fool art thou,
A ramping fool; to brag, and stamp, and swear,
Upon my party! thou cold blooded Nave,
Hast thou not spoke like thunder on my side ?
Been sworn my foldier ? bidding me depend
Upon thy stars, thy fortune, and thy strength?
And doft thou now fall over to my foes ?
Thou wear a lion's hide! doff it for shame,
5 And hang a calve's-skin on those recreant limbs.

Auft. Oh that a man would speak those words to me!

Faul. And hang a calve's skin on those recreant limbs. domar, viscount of Limoges; and the archer, who pierced his fhoulder with an arrow (of which wound he died) was Bertrand de Gourdon. The editors seem hitherto to have understood Lymoges as being an appendage to the title of Austria, and therefore enquired no further about it.

With this note, I was favoured by a gentleman to whom I have yet more considerable obligations in regard to Shakespeare. His extensive knowledge of history and manners, has frequently supplied me with apt and necessary illustrations, at the same time as his judgment has corrected my errors; yet such has been his constant solicitude to remain concealed, that I know not but I may give offence while I indulge my own vanity in affixing to this note, the name of my friend HENRY BLAKE, esq. STEEV.

s And hang a calve's-skin on those recreant limbs.] When fools were kept for diversion in great families, they were distinguished by a calve-skin coat, which had the buttons down the back and chis they wore that they might be known for fools, and efcape the resentment of those whom they provoked with their waggeries.

In a little penny book, intitled, The Birah, Life, and Death of Jobu Franks, with the Pranks ke played though a meer Fool, mention is made in several places of a calve's-skin. In chap. x. of this book, Jack is said to have made his appearance at his Jord's table, having then a new calf-/kin suit, red and white {potted. This fact will explain the sarcasm of Faulconbridge, who means to call Austria a fool.. HAWKINS.

I may add, that the custoin is still preserved in Ireland; and the fool, in any of the legends which the mummers act at Chritmas, always appears in a calf's or cow's kin. STEEVENS.

Auft. Thou dar'st not say so, villain, for thy life. Faulc. And hang a calve's skin on those recreant

limbs. Auft. 7 Methinks, that Richard's pride and Richard's

fall Should be a precedent to fright you all. Faulc. 8 What words are these ? how do my sinews

shake! My father's foe clad in my father's 'poil! How doth Alecto whisper in my ears,

Delay not, Richard, kill the villain strait ; « Difrobe him of the matchless monument, “ Thy father's triumph o'er the favages. But arm thee, traitor, wronger


renown, For by his soul I swear, my father's foul,

Methinks, that Richard's pride, &c.] What was the ground of this quarrel of the Bastard to Austria is no where specified in the present play: nor is there in this place, or the scene where it is first hinted at (namely the second of act. 2.) the least mention of any reason for it. But the story is, that Auftria, who killed king Richard Caur-de-lion, wore, as the spoil of that prince, a lion's hide which had belonged to him. This circumftance renders the anger of the Bastard very natural, and ought not to have been omitted. In the first sketch of this play (which Shakespeare is said to have had a hand in, jointly with William Rowley) we accordingly find this insisted upon, and I have ventured to place a few of those verses here. Pore.

To the insertion of these lines I have nothing to object. There are many other passages in the old play of great value. The omision of this incident, in the second draught, was natural. Shakespeare, having familiarized the story to his own imagination, forgot that it was obscure to his audience ; or, what is equally probable, the story was then so popular, that a hint was fufficient at that time to bring it to mind, and these plays were written with very little care for the approbation of potterity.

JOHNSON. The lines that compose this speech are in the firit sketch of the play printed in 1611, though mixed up with a great number of others on the same subject of altercation, which were very judiciously rejected. STEEVENS.

I have restored one line more, not merely for the sake of appearing to do something, but because the insertion of it renders the alteration made by Mr. Pope in the succeeding one unneceffary. STEEVENS. VOL. V.



Twice will I not review the morning's rise,
Till I have torn that trophy from thy back;
And split thy heart, for wearing it so long.
K. John. We like not this; thou dost forget thyself.

Enter Pandulph.
K. Phil. Here comes the holy legate of the pope.

Pand. Hail, you anointed deputies of heaven!
To thee, king John, my holy errand is.
I Pandulph, or fair Milan cardinal,
And from pope Innocent the legate here,
Do in his name religioully demand
Why thou against the church, our holy mother,
So wilfully doft spurn; and, force perforce,
Keep Stephen Langton, chosen archbishop
Of Canterbury, from that holy see?
This, in our 'foresaid holy father's name,
Pope Innocent, I do demand of thee.

K. John. What earthly name to interrogatories 9
Can task the free breath of a sacred king ?
Thou canst not, cardinal, devise a name
So fight, unworthy, and ridiculous,
To clarge me to an answer, as the pope.
Tell him this tale, and from the mouth of England
Add thus much more, That no Italian priest
Shall tithe or toll in our dominions :
But as we under heaven are supreme head,
So, under him, that great fupremacy,
Where we do reign, we will alone uphold,
Without the afliitance of a mortal hand.

9 What earthly name to interrogatories) This muft have been at ihe time when it was written, in our Itruggles with popery, a ve y captivating scene.

So many pašlages remain in which Shakespeare evidently takes his advantage of the facts then receat, and of the passions then in motion, tha I cannot but suspect that time has obscured much of his art, and that many allusiɔns yet remain undifcovered, which perhaps may be gradually retrieved by fucceeding commentators. JOHNSON.

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So tell the pope; all reverence set apart
To him, and his usurp'd authority.

K. Phil. Brother of England, you blaspheme in this.
K. John. Tho'

you, and all the kings of Christendom Are led fo grosly by this meddling priest, Dreading the curse that money may buy out; And, by the merit of vile gold, dross, dust, Purchase corrupted pardon of a man, Who, in that sale, sells pardon from himself: Tho’you, and all the rest, fo grosly led, This juggling witchcraft with revenue cherish; Yet I alone, alone, do me oppose Against the pope, and count his friends


Pand. Then by the lawful power that I have,
Thou shalt stand curft, and excommunicate:
And blessed shall he be, that doth revolt
From his allegiance to an heretic;
And meritorious shall that hand be callid,
Canonized and worship'd as a faint,
That takes away by any secret course "
Thy hateful life.

Conjt. O, lawful let it be,
That I have room with Rome to curse a while !
Good father cardinal, cry thou, Amen,
To my keen curses; for, without my wrong,
There is no tongue hath power to curse him right.

Pand. There's law, and warrant, lady, for my curse.
Conft. And for mine too; when law can do no right,
Let it be lawful that law bar no wrong:
Law cannot give my child his kingdom here;
For he, that holds his kingdom, holds the law :

That takes away by any secret course, &c.] This may

aliude to the bull published againit queen Elizabeth. Or we may suppafe, fince we have no proof that this play appeared in its prelent state before the reign of king James, that it was exhibited foon after the popish plot. I have seen a Spanish book in which Garnet, Faux, and their accomplices are regittered as faints.


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Therefore, since law itself is perfect wrong,
How can the law forbid my tongue to curse ?
Pand. Philip of France, on peril of a curse,

the hand of that arch-heretic;
And raise the power of France upon his head,
Unless he do submit himself to Rome.
Eli. Look'st thou pale, France ? do not let go thy

hand. Const. Look to that, devil! left that France repent, And, by disjoining hands, hell lose a soul..

Auft. King Philip, listen to the cardinal.
Faulc. And hang a calve’s-skin on his recreant limbs.

Auft. Well, ruffian, I must pocket up these wrongs, Because

Faulc. Your breeches best may carry them.
K. John. Philip, what say'st thou to the cardinal ?
Const. What should he lay, but as the cardinal ?

Lewis. Berhink you, father ; for the difference
Is, purchase of a heavy curse from Rome ?,
Or the light loss of England for a friend :
Forgo the easier,

Blanch. That's the curse of Rome.

Conf. Lewis, stand fast; the devil tempts thee here 3 In likeness of a new untrimmed bride.



? It is a political maxim, that kingdoms are never married. Lewis, upon the wedding, is for making war upon his new relations. JOHNSON.

- the devil tempts thee here In likeness of a new untrimmed bride.] Though all the copies concur in this reading, yet as antrimmed cannot bear any fignification to square with the sense required, I cannot help thinking it a corrupted reading. I have ventured to throw out the negative, and read,

In likeness of a new and trimmed bride. i. e. of a new bride, and one decked and adorned as well by art as nature. THEODALD.

- a new antrimmed bride.] Mr. Theobald says, that as antrimmed cannot bear any signification to Square with the sense required, it must be corrupt; therefore he will cashier it, and read, and trimmed; in which he is followed by the Oxford editor ;



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