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sheets from which I still suffer. It would be absurd to suppose that Warre did not add up his own similar columns and bring out a successful balance.

To a friend who says that he gets from the book no picture of the man, I answer that the photographs are well chosen for giving the impression of that square stalwart figure, while the text reminds us of the great warm hand's cordial clasp, the heavy foot's firm stance, and the noble honest presence which well fulfilled the promise of the lovely George Richmond drawing of his youth. Really he was not oppressively tall for his square and solid frame, yet as 'big as a house' is a phrase written of him, not unjustly, because his was so impressive a personality, whether he met you cheery and alert in Agar's Plough or came into chapel with the procession, bearing on bowed shoulders the solemn weight of his responsibilities. Page 120 might have done well to rail even more angrily at the foolish plague of written impositions; other devices have failed. Drill brings the culprits into too close acquaintance; Dr Lyttelton tried left-hand writing; but how could you be sure it was not bad right-hand work? Learning by heart is of too unequal incidence. Simple sums or perfect writing on double lines are a better solution, if quite necessary. Warre reported to me Dr Walker's words (p. 131) as 'Warre, I did not think you were such a beast!' Page 158 attributes to Foster Cunliffe the merit of having nearly unseated Kaiser Wilhelm. There is also a tradition of another Cunliffe, a clumsy boy who was rather a butt; a cartridge had been left accidentally in his rifle, not slipped in on the field; but Mr Fletcher is sure to be right. In the account of the great flood of 1894 (p. 152) the disappearance of 'Rushes' is not noticed. The Laureate's 'Round the rushes and home again' is an obscure line to the present generation; that famous water-mark deserved an elegy from so excellent a wet-bob.

To leave the book once more for the life-as there were two occasions which seemed to need some explanation, so there were two when the true Warre seemed most on his mettle. One was the wonderful time-table and organisation of the school-work made out by him alone on his accession to the Headmastership. Almost

incredible was the difficulty of interweaving the different Divisions giving each its room and its due amount of time, so as to temper the numbers of every set to the requirements of their subject and the supply of Masters. The other occasion was the preparation for the Jubilee. The enthusiasm of the School was then strangely infectious. Never before or after was such unanimity. From even the keenest Lords match a large fraction of the School is absent. Here, in Playing Fields, was the whole School, Masters and boys, singing and moving together with the eager precision of oars in an Eight and entirely under the Head's sole sway. At the second Jubilee the novelty was dulled; there was some boredom, more duty and less enjoyment. The first was unforgettable. That both these occasions were feats of organisation shows the main qualities of the man. The time-table really did not hold good for very long. As with the projected series of Eton books, circumstances were too strong for it. Symmetry, Order, Drill were triumphant for a passing show but not flexible enough to last. They tempted outsiders to think them Warre's chief excellence, whereas his outshining virtues were his sweetness and tenderness of heart, his noble humanity, integrity, simplicity, piety.

His Confirmation addresses did not get all the attention they deserved; they were scholarly but lacked unction; they explained some theological terms and dwelt on his favourite doctrine of the salvation of Societies by the Remnant' (Isaiah's doctrine and Aristotle's) 'the vñóμɛvov vylés Tɩ.' This with Liberty and 'to know your place and to keep it' deserved and won admission into most of his sermons. There was good stuff, careful and instructive, in them; but of course, if Masters did not attend, boys would take the cue of indifference.

In more serious moral reforms much was wanted when he took the reins; and this was perhaps the point which most exercised those who had deprecated his appointment. Things had been going downhill; there were some who could not, others who would not, look into so difficult and painful a trouble. Men whose vigorous, open-air, manly boyhood had left them innocent and ignorant, almost resented attempts to see below

the surface. Much improvement, at all events, was made by the bracing effect of Warre's increase of work and enforcement of industry, by more activity and keenness in games, and by the influence of his own stalwart manliness and honour. Yet no one who knows much of the seamy side of school life can doubt the possible deceptiveness of a cheerful surface. If Arnold suspected the devil in every secluded group of boys, he might have to confess himself wrong nowadays, and grateful may we be for any such raising of the standards, but it ought not to blind us to the constant need of help and warning for many who tempt or are tempted, and of vigilance, however distressing. This is made easier too by the increased friendliness of boys and Masters and their mixing so much more freely than in the days of buckram-a great deal of which was Warre's doing. Let us be thankful but not rest.

It was his taking over the coaching of the Eight that made such athletic intercourse fashionable. Nature, literature, music, or art had attracted some other Masters, friendly with their boys. In each case there was a danger. For the latter a fear of sentimentality and favouritism; for the athletes a loss of independence and initiative. The improvement of rowing is a common gain, and so is the hardening and regularising of outdoor exercise; but of course it makes many think that amusements are the real business of life-an idea

which certainly does prevail very widely among the English gentry, from whom it has spread downwards to the football and cinema crowds, till it becomes a real danger to our national life. The joy and fun of a game risk being swamped by the competitive spirit; when mere games flag, matches must be made to lure the players; soon the match is hardly enough unless there is a Cup or Colours or something to be won. Three pages of the Times' are now given where one used to be sufficient; and a fictitious interest fills apparently all the spare time of spectators day after day. The struggle of thirty good men draws the gate-money of 30,000 idlers. Preparatory schools, in colours, prizes, and publicity, ape their elders, who, dissatisfied with their own borders, travel the country for boxing, fives, racquets, and other wider competitions, announced in

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the morning and photographed in the evening press. Fresh expenses are incurred; and one fears a growing burthen of miniature Lords and Bisleys, Stamford Bridges and International Olympias. There is need of moderation. Can we secure the improvement of the sport without the evils of the competition? These Warre abominated. He refused to visit even Henley when it became a Society function, though it was partly his example, following on the coaching at Harrow, that had partly set it going. Anyway, he resolutely set his face against record-breaking, pot-hunting, and the like, insisting always that duty must come first (p. 281).

Not less did he value that Palladium of Eton, the Tutorial System. He hated inroads on the Classics, which the times demanded. In vain he and we pleaded that the great Endowed Schools should remain as fortresses of the Humanities, and could indeed afford to set the example. It would have been vastly unpopular; numbers would have fallen seriously; and that Warre would never have endured. The prosperity of Eton was the crown of his magnificent ideal; and he was, as Mr Fletcher points out, somewhat timorous of parents and public opinion. Few disputants for or against Classical Education see how the tutorial system depends on it. Unless there is one general and principal staple of a boy's work, which he can do with his own tutor, there cannot be the constant intercourse in and out of pupilroom on which complete familiarity (not necessarily friendship) depends. The age for specialising should be largely ruled by this need. To put a young boy to fresh subjects for which he must go to different Masters must seriously impoverish the phrase 'my tutor.' Those who think the tutorial relation one of the foundation stones of Eton are naturally jealous for it.

Warre as a builder is treated in the book with tempered indulgence. The moulded bricks of the Music School are justly commended by the writer, though sadly defaced by the boys. Nothing, however, is said of the terrible new Racquet Courts, which had at once to be planted out. Blomfield's Lower Chapel and Queen's Schools' really compare ill with Woodyer's New Schools,' which, but for the skimping of material, would be quite good. Nor can the Houses of Common Lane be

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excused by reproaching the Memorial Buildings. That these last are too big for the site comes of Warre's requirements, but it was right to mark their date by the later style of Wren over against the early Wren of Upper School. It is the ornament that justly provokes the critic. At all events the brick is not 'grey' (p. 147), but a subdued red, which should please one who censures (p. 143) the 'glare of the new (red) brickwork' of Calcott's houses and the 'yellow stone with a harsh (red) brick surface' of Queen's Schools. A final protest must also be allowed against some of the work approved in the Provost's Lodge. It was cruel to disclose the 'octagonal turret of the Ostiarius,' the loveliest bit of brickwork in College, only to make it a kitchen-lift with passage to a dining-room. Of course fresh rooms were absorbed into the Lodge. By the constant increase of such demands it has come about that what appears to have been designed for some thirty-six lodgings is now insufficient for three families, not counting the Vice-Provost's house, which is of later date. Not till 1893, says our biographer, was Savile House definitely saved by the Headmaster's move into Cloisters. He was probably right in thinking that it took him too far away from the School. But he did something to make himself accessible to boys there; and his successors have increased this policy, till at present friends and Divisions can come and go without shyness where an uninvited Assistant Master was once thought intrusive. This rescue of Savile House might well have tempted a longer note on the foiled attack of 1886. It is a mercy always to be remembered, how Lord Grimthorpe's letter professing to speak for Old Etonians advocated its destruction, and was slily printed by the Times' next a petition for preservation signed by Lord Salisbury, Gladstone, Lord Rosebery, A. J. Balfour, and some twenty other notable Eton names.


But, if Warre was not happy as a builder, he did at least deserve success for his most far-seeing and patriotic effort in the School of Mechanics. He began it too abruptly on too large a scale. A carpenter's shop, well started and allowed gradual growth, would have been less expensive and probably more effective than the fine plant of machinery by which he hoped to prepare boys for colonial activity. Nothing else in him showed so

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