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south of Jerusalem, viz. in the valley of Hinnom, and in the part of said valley called Tophet, so named from the drums which were beaten to prevent the groans

and cries of children sacrificed, from being heard, Jer. vii. 31, 32. xix. 6—14. Isai. xxx. 33. 2 Kings xxiii. 10. The place was so abhorrent to the minds of the more recent Jews, that they applied the name Ge Hinnom or Gehenna to the place of torments in a future life. The word Gehenna is used in this way, (viz. for the place of punishment beyond the grave,) very frequently in oriental writers, as far as India. Compare Wetsten's New Testament, at Math. v. 5."

Such are the points which seem to be fixed relative to this subject. From these facts, we may form a rational conjecture, how the Jews came to use the term Gehenna to express a place of endless punishment in a future state. They did not so apply this term, to express a place of endless punishment to themselves. No: let it be noticed, it was so used to express a place of endless punishment to the Gentile nations. No Jew could suffer the torments of hell. But all the Gentiles were fit fuel for hell fire. The Jews had even no dealings with the Samaritans; and they counted it proper to hate their enemies. Math. v. 43. See how strong this prejudice was, even in the minds of Christ's own followers, Acts chapters x, and xi. The whole New Testament, shows to what extent self-righteousness, self love, national pride, and vanity had taken possession of the minds of the Jews. The quotation made from Whitby, on Rom. ii. above, shows the malignant hatred which the Jews had to the Gentiles. To express this hatred of them, they consigned them to hell fire; and it is a probable conjecture, that as no place was more abominable to Jews than Gehenna, they used the term Gehenna to express the place of endless punishment to the Gentile nations. This conjecture, the reader must easily perceive, seems to be countenanced from the quo

tation from Whitby, and also from the accounts given from the Targums respecting Gehenna. But at this distance of time, we have no hope of being ever able to determine, when, or by whom, this new sense was first given to Gehenna. That it was not from divine authority, seems certain, and in the nineteenth century, it is high time for Christians to discard all human authority in the things of religion.

We have now finished our examination of the term Gehenna. The result to which we have come, and the evidence by which we have arrived at it, are before the reader, let him judge for himself. In conclusion we would observe.

1st, If any person believes my views are unscriptural, the first step to be taken, to convince me of my error,

account rationally for the facts I have stated. Until these are fairly removed out of the way, it is impossible for me to believe, Gehenna in the New Testament, designates hell, a world of woe. Let any candid man examine these facts, and then say, if it is possible with such facts in view, any rational man can believe this doctrinę. They form a phalanx of difficulties, which is įmpenetrable, against its reception. Upon no part of this whole Inquiry, has more labor of thinking been bestowed, than in attempting to reconcile the facts with the common opinion, that Gehenna designates a place of endless punishment to the wicked. We have turned this subject round, and viewed it on all sides, with all the attention we could command. I can sincerely say,

[ have sought, but sought in vain, to find something which could fairly account for the facts, and reconcile them with this doctrine. The more I have labored in this way, the facts have increased against it. And I am persuaded, if the labor was continued they would still increase, for I am not convinced that the subject is exhausted.

2d, The next step to be taken, to convinoe me of my

error, if it be one, is, to examine all the texts which speaks of Gehenna, and show that I have misinterpreted them. When this is done, there will be no need to refer me to the Jewish Targums for proof, that Gehenna in the New Testament means hell, a world of woe, for I will believe the doctrine, without any appeal to their authority. The only question to settle with me is—has God revealed this doctrine in the Bible? If he has, this is enough for me.

But if he has not, popular belief, the Jewish Targums, all human authority I reject without hesitation.

3d, That Gehenna in the New Testament means hell, the world of woe, is assumed. The most plausible argument in favor of this sense, is, its usage in the Targums. But, if this argument ever had any force, it is now seen, it was derived from a mistaken opinion, that the Targums existed prior to the days of our Lord. This has always been taken for granted, as if it ought not, yea could not be questioned. How this case stands, let the reader now judge; from the evidence laid before him. Should it still be said, Gehenna is to be found in this sense, in Jewish writings prior to the days of our Lord, I demand that the names and dates of these writings be given, and let them be quoted, that all may see what they say on this subject. Assertions prove nothing; and if evidence can be produced, why withhold it, for who can believe without it?

4th, If the true sense of Gehenna in the New Testament, is to be learned from its usage in the Targums, but very few persons can understand the scriptures on this subject. Not one in ten thousand ever heard of such writings, and not one in a million of our race ever saw them, or have had an opportunity to consult them. Can any man believe, God has left his rational offspring at the mercy of such interpreters of the true sense of Gehenna? It is allowed, the bible is the religion of protestants; and no maxim is more true than this —

the bible is the best interpreter of itself.' Why then go to the writers of the Targums, enemies of Christ and of Christianity, to learn, that Gehenna means hell, world of woe? How could they tell, that in this sense he used Gehenna, if they wrote several hundred years after our Lord was on the earth ? They did not hear him deliver his discourses, in which he speaks of Gehenna, and if they had, there was some temptation on their part to pervert his meaning. He announced punishment to their nation under the emblem of Gehenna

“ how can ye escape the damnation of hell.”

5th, To quote as authority the Targums, or even the christian fathers, that Gehenna means hell, world of woe, in the New Testament, is a plain concession, that such a sense is not to be found in the bible. If universalists, depended on such authority for the truth of universal salvation, their cause would be deemed indefensible. They would be looked on as weak, silly, credulous people; obstinately attached to a false system, which cannot be supported by scripture authority. But do they support their views of Gehenna, or any other part of their system, by such kind of authority as this ? No. We have appealed to evidence and argument drawn from scripture, for the views we have advanced about Gehenna, and invite a refutation, by an appeal to the same authority. All we have had to do with the Targums, and other Jewish writings, has been, in exposing the rotten foundation on which the common doctrine rests about Gehenna punishment.

SECTION VI.

OBJECTIONS CONSIDERED.

THERE is not a truth revealed in the Bible, against which one opposed to it, may not start objections. It would, however, be a waste of time, and a very trifling employment, to answer every silly objection which might be made. All will allow, that objections which are rational, and which affect the subject against which they are brought, demand an answer. Every objection which has occurred to myself, or has been suggested by others, of any weight against the views which have been advanced, I shall now attempt to consider. These objections divide themselves into two classes ; common popular objections, and, objections which are urged against the argument adduced. Let us begin with the first of these.

One of the most popular objections, is, that my sentiments are of a licentious tendency. It is remarked, “ if you do away Gehenna or hell as a place of endless punishment for the wicked, what is left to deter men from the commission of every crime ? Indeed, say some, if I believed there was no hell, I would indulge myself in all kinds of iniquity! Look, say they, at the loose principles, and still more loose morals, of the Universalists; and add, by way of triumph, who ever heard of a revival of religion among them?” It will be allowed, that I have stated this objection fully and fairly. It shall now be my business, as fully and fairly to meet it.

1st, It is said, “if hell, a place of endless punishment is done away, what is left to deter men from the commission of crime ?” In reply to this, I remark1st, Under the Old Testament dispensation, it is allowed that the doctrine of endless hell torments was not known. Suffer me then to ask, what was left to de

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