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GRATIAN, the son of Valentinian I. by his first wife, was associated in the empire by his father, at Amiens, in 365, and succeeded him in 367; a prince equally extolled for his eloquence and modesty. He associated Theodosius with him in the empire, and advanced the poet Ausonius to the consulate. He made a great slaughter of the Germans at Strasburg, and hence was surnamed Alemannicus. He was the first emperor who refused the title of Pontifex Maximus, on account of its being a Pagan dignity. He was assassinated by Andragathius in 375, in the twenty-fourth year of his age.
GRATIAN, a British soldier in the Roman army, who was crowned emperor by the legions in Britain, about A.D. 407, but was murdered by them within four months.
GRATIAN, a famous Benedictine monk, in the twelfth century, born at Chiousi. He was employed nearly twenty-four years in composing a work, entitled Decretum, or Concordantia Discordantium Canonum, because he there endeavoured to reconcile the canons which seemed contradictory to each other. This work was published in 1151. As he is frequently mistaken, in taking one canon of one council, or one passage of one father, for another, and has often cited false decretals, several authors have endeavoured to correct his faults; and chiefly Anthony Augustine, in his excellent work entitled De Emendatione Gratiani.
GRATINGS, in a ship, are small edges of sawed plank, framed one into another like a lattice or prison grate, lying on the upper deck, between the main-mast and fore-mast, serving for a defence in a close fight, and also for the coolness, light, and convenience of the ship's company. GRATIOLA, hedge hyssop, a genus of the monogynia order, and driandria class of plants; natural order fortieth, personatæ : COR. is irregular: there are two barren stamina : CAPS. is bilocular: CAL. seven leaves, with the two exterior ones patulous. There are fifteen species; the most remarkable of which, the G. officinalis, the common hedge hyssop, grows naturally on the Alps, and other mountainous parts of Europe. It has a thick, fleshy, fibrous creeping root, which propagates very much, when planted in a proper soil and situation. From this arise several upright square stalks, garnished with narrow spear-shaped leaves, placed opposite. The flowers are produced on the side of the stalks at each joint: they are shaped like those of the fox-glove, but are small, and of a pale yellowish color. This herb has an emetic and purgative virtue; to answer which intentions, it was formerly used by the common people in England, but was never much prescribed by the physicians, and at last fell totally into disuse. It is the subject of a dissertation by Dr. James Kostrzewski of Warsaw, in Poland; who gives some remarkable accounts of its effects in mania and obstinate venereal cases. It was given in powder, or in extract, to the quantity of half a drachm of the first, and a whole drachm of the second, at each dose.
GRATIOSA, a beautiful and fertile island of the Azore cluster, about twenty miles in circumVOL. X.-PART 2.
ference. The chief town is Santa Cruz, where, however, there is no harbour, but only an open roadstead. Long. 27° 56′ W., lat. 39° 2′ N. ́
GRATIOSA, a small rocky and barren island, situated to the north of Lanzerota, one of the Canaries. Long. 13° 17′ W., lat. 29° 15′ N.
GRATTAN (Henry), a celebrated Irish statesman, was born about 1750, in Dublin, of which city his father was recorder. Having studied at Trinity College, Dublin, and in one of the inns of court, he was called to the bar; but, being elected into the Irish parliament in 1775, gave himself up to public business, and, by his powerful remonstrances, obtained for his country the concessions of 1782, for which he was rewarded by the Irish parliament with a vote of £50,000. In 1790 he was returned for the city of Dublin, principally to oppose the union; but when it was effected he accepted a seat in the imperial parliament for Malton. He now supported the war policy of the government, but his principal exertions were called forth in advocating the Catholic claims, to which cause indeed he fell a martyr by leaving Ireland in an exhausted state to bring their petition to England. He died soon after his arrival, May 14th 1820, and was inerred in Westminster Abbey.
GRATZ, a respectable old town, the capital of one of the five circles of Styria, situated on the Muhr. The ancient part is small, enclosed by a wall and ditch. The citadel stands on a very steep hill on the banks of the river, and the town has been gradually accumulated round it. Since 1787 it has been the see of a bishop, and was the seat of a university from 1585 to 1782; but the place of that seminary is now supplied by a lyceum, or academy, and a large school. The houses in general are of stone, and it has twenty-two churches and chapels, including the cathedral, once the parish church. The emperor Ferdinand II., who was a native of Gratz, has a mausoleum here, remarkable for its internal ornamental sculpture. Here is also a library said to contain from 3000 to 4000 MSS., besides the theatre and barracks, which are said to be entitled to attention; as is also the Johanneum, a museum for the antiquities of Styria. Gratz contains manufactures of hardware, saltpetre, cotton, and silk. The environs are very fertile, the hills being covered with plantations and vineyards, intermingled with villages and detached cottages. It is fifty-six miles N. N. E. of Cilley, and 100 south-west of Vienna.
GRATZ, one of the circles of the duchy of Styria, comprises the northern part of Lower Styria, lying on both sides of the Muhr, and has an area of 2100 square miles. The surface is hilly, but there are few high mountains; and the valleys are fertile and picturesque, particularly between Gratz and Bruck. The pasturage is the chief agricultural object of attention, and the cattle, milk, butter, and cheese, are in repute. The steep grounds of the hills contain large forests of pine, but the chief riches of this circle, as of Styria in general, arise from its mines, and the manufactures connected with them. It contains a large number of villages. Population 300,000. 2 C
GRAUDENTZ, or GRUDZIADZ, a town of West Prussia, at the confluence of the Ossa and Vistula. It conducts manufactures of cloth and extensive breweries, with some trade in corn and tobacco. The inhabitants are chiefly German Lutherans, but the Catholics have a church and a public school. Near this place a strong fort was erected on the bank of the Vistula in 1776, and in 1798 a bridge of boats was laid across that river. It is fourteen miles N. N. E. of Culm, and fifty-five south of Dantzic. Population 6700.
GRAVE, n. s. & adj. Sax. gnæ; Goth. GRAVE-CLOTHES, n. s. | grauf, grav; Belg. and GRAVE-STONE, N. S. Swed.graf; Fr. grave, GRAVE LESS, adj. gravité; Latin gravis, GRAVELY, adv. graveolens, gravidus, GRAVE'NESS, n. s. gravitas. The place in GRAVITY, n. s. which the dead are deGRAVIDITY, n. s. posited; the dress of GRAVITATE, V. n. the dead; the monuGRAVITATION, n. s. mental stone: solemn; GRAVEOLENT, adj. serious; weighty; atrocious tendency to centre of attraction. Gravidity is a word used to denote a state of pregnancy. Graveless, without a grave; unburied. Grave, a final syllable in the names of places, is from the Saxon gnæf, a grove or cave.- -Gibson's Camden. Sche goith to the graue, to wepe there. Wiclif. Jon. xi. And he that was dead came forth, bound hand and foot with grave-cloaths. John xi. 44. The frosty grave and colde must be my bedde, Without list ye shewe. your grace and mercy Chaucer. The Court of Love. Therefore to ground he would him cast no more, Ne him commit to grave terrestrial,
But beare him far from hope of comfort usual.
Now it is the time of night, That the graves, all gaping wide,
Every one lets forth his spright, In the church-way paths to glide.
There is not a white hair on your face but should have his effect of gravity. Id. Henry IV. Our youths and wildness shall no whit appear, But all be buried in his gravity.
There's more gold :
My brave Egyptians all,
To the more mature,
Burnet. The emperors often jested on their rivals or predecessors, but their mints still maintained their gravity. Addison. A girl longs to tell her confidant that she hopes to be married in a little time, and asks her very gravely what she would have her to do. Id. Spectator. Youth on silent wings is flown; Graver years come rolling on.
That quality by which all heavy bodies tend towards the centre, accelerating their motion the nearer they approach towards it, true philosophy has shewn to be unsolvable by any hypothesis, and resolved it into the immediate will of the Creator. Of all bodies, considered within the confines of any fluid, there is a twofold gravity, true and absolute, and vulgar or comparative; absolute gravity is the whole force by which any body tends downwards; but the relative or vulgar is the excess of gravity in one body above the specific gravity of the fluid, whereby it tends downwards more than the ambient fluid doth. Quincy. Though this increase of density may at great dis
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tances be exceeding slow, yet if the elastick tone of this medium be exceeding great, it may suffice to impel bodies from the denser parts of the medium towards the rarer, with all that power which we call gravity. Newton's Opticks. Those who have nature's steps with care pursued, That matter is with active force endued, That all its parts magnetick power exert, And to each other gravitate, assert.
Women, obstructed, have not always the forementioned symptoms: in those the signs of gravidity and obstructions are hard to be distinguished in the beginning. Arbuthnot on Diet. That subtle matter must be of the same substance with all other matter, and as much as is comprehended within a particular body must gravitate jointly with that body. Bentley.
To laugh, were want of goodness and of grace;. And to be grave exceeds all power of face. Pope. When the loose mountain trembles from on high, Shall gravitation cease, if you go by?
GRAVE, v. a. & v. n. Sax. napan; Goth. GRAV'ER, n. s. grafa; Belg. graaven; GRAVING, n.s. Fr. graver, graveur; Gr. ypad. To insculp or carve figures out of stone, iron, or any hard substance; to write upon or delineate; to clean, caulk, and sheath a ship: graver is one who copies pictures upon wood or metal to be impressed on paper; the style or tool used in graving: graving is carved work.
Thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and grave upon it. Exodus xxviii. 36. Skilfu. to work in gold; also to grave any manner of graving, and to find out every device which shall be put to him.
2 Chron. ii. 14.
What profiteth the graven image, that the make. thereof hath graven it. Hebrews ii. 18.
Go, sell it them that smalè seles grave; We wol the not. Chaucer. Troilus and Creseide. Eke some men grave in tre, some in stone wal, · As it betide: out sith I have begonne, Mine authour shall I folow as I konne. And aftir this was graved, alas' How Ilions castill assailed was, And won, and kyng Priamus slain, And Polites his sonne certain,
GRAVE, in grammar, a species of accent opposite to acute. The grave accent is expressed thus (); and shows that the voice is to be depressed, and the syllable over which it is placed pronounced in a low deep tone.
GRAVE, in music, is applied to a sound which is in a low or deep tone. The thicker the chord or string, the more grave the tone or note, and the smaller the acuter. Notes are supposed to be the more grave, in proportion as the vibrations of the chord are less quick.
GRAVE, a town of North Brabant, in the Netherlands, on the left bank of the Maese: it is fortified, and made a gallant defence against the French in the winter of 1794-5. Population 1600. Nine miles south by west of Nimeguen and eighteen north-east of Bois le Duc. GRAVER. See ENGRAVING.
Along the strond; which as she overwent The saw bestrowed all with rich aray
Of perles and pretious stones of great assay, And all the gravell mixt with golden owre, Whereat she wondered much.
laid, it should be raked, and the large stones thrown back again: then the whole should be rolled both lengthwise and crosswise; and the person who draws the roller should wear shoes with flat heels, that he may make no holes; because holes made in a new walk are not easily remedied. The walks should always be rolled three or four times in very hard showers, after which they will bind more firmly than otherwise they could ever be made to do. Gravel, with some loam among it, binds more firmly than the rawer kinds; and, when gravel is naturally very harsh and sharp, it is proper to add a mixture of loam to it. The best gravel for walks is such as abounds with smooth round pebbles, which, being mixed with a little loam, are bound so firmly together that they are never afterwards injured, either by wet or dry weather These are not so liable to be turned up by the feet in walking, as the more irregularly shaped pebbles and remain much more firmly in their places after rolling.
GRAVES (Richard), an English divine and poet, was born at Mickleton, in Gloucestershire in 1715. He was a student of Pembroke College, Oxford, and afterwards obtained a fellowship of All Souls. In 1750 he was presented to the rectory of Claverton near Bath; and Mr. Allen, of Prior park, added to it, in 1663, that of Kilmersdon. He died in 1804. His works are, 1. The Festoon, or Epigrams, 12mo. 2. Lucubrations in prose and rhyme. 3. The Spiritual Quixote, a novel, in 3 vols. 4. Columella, or the distressed Anchoret, 2 vols. 5. Euphrosyne, a collection of poems, vols. 6. Eugenius, or the Golden Vale, 2 vols. 7. Recollections of particulars in 8. Plexippus, or the aspiring Plebeian, 2 vols. 9. The Reveries of Solitude. 10. The Coalition, a comedy. 11. Sermons, 8vo. 12. The Farmer's Son, a moral tale. 13. The Invalid, with the Means of enjoying long Life. 14. Senilities. Besides these publications, he translated Marcus Antoninus' Meditations, and other books, from the Greek.
the life of Shenstone.
Spenser's Faerie Queene. Proofs as clear as founts in July, when We see each grain of gravel. Shakspeare. -Nay, you were better speak first, and when you were gravelled for lack of matter you might take oc
casion to kiss.
There are some natural spring waters that will inlapidate wood; so that you shall see one piece of wood, whereof the part above the water shall continue wood, and the part under the water shall be turned into a gravelly stone.
Bacon's Natural History. Moss groweth upon alleys, especially such as lic cold, and upon the north, as in divers terrasses; and again, if they be much trodden, or if they were at the first gravelled. Bacon. If you live in a consumptive air, make choice of the more open, high, dry, and gravelly part of it. Harvey on Consumptions.
The disease itself will gravel him to judge of it; nor can there be any prediction made of it, it is so Howel. sharp.
What work do our imaginations make with eternity and immensity? and how are we gravelled by their cutting dilemmas? Glanville's Scopsis. So deep and yet so clear, we might behold The gravel bottom, and that bottom gold. Dryden. Gravel walks are best for fruit-trecs. Mortimer.
The upper garden at Kensington was at first nothing but a gravel pit. Spectator. Mat, who was here a little gravelled, Tossed up his nose, and would have cavilled. Prior.
Gravel consists of flints of all the usual sizes and
colours; of the several sorts of pebbles; sometimes with a few pyritæ, and other mineral bodies, confusedly intermixed, and common sand. Woodward. If the stone is brittle it will often crumble, and pass in the form of gravel: if the stone is too big to pass, the best method is to come to a sort of a compo
sition or truce with it.
Arbuthnot. Providence permitted not the earth to spend itself in base gravels and pebbles, instead of quarries of More.
GRAVEL, in gardening, a congeries of pebbles, which, mixed with a stiff loam, makes lasting and elegant gravel walks; an ornament peculiar to our gardens, and which gives them an advantage over those of other nations.
GRAVEL, in medicine. See MEDICINE. GRAVEL WALKS. To make these properly, the bottom should be laid with lime rubbish, large flint stones, or any other hard matter, for eight or ten inches thick, to keep weeds from growing through, and over this the gravel is to be laid six or eight inches thick. This should be laid rounding up in the middle, by which means the larger stones will run off to the sides, and may be raked away; for the gravel should never be screened before it is laid on. It is an error to lay these walks too round, which not only makes them uneasy to walk "Don, but takes off from their apparent breadth. One inch in five feet is a sufficient rise in the middle; so that a walk of twenty feet wide should be only four inches higher at the middle than at the edges, and so in proportion. As soon as the gravel is
GRAVES, among the Jews, were generally out of the city, though there are instances of their interring the dead in towns. Frequent mention is made of graves upon mountains, in highways, in gardens, and private houses; so that nothing on this head seems to have been determined. The same may be observed with respect to the Greeks. The Thebans had a law that every person who built a house should provide a burial ground. Men who had distinguished themselves were frequently buried in the public forum. The most general custom was, however, to bury out of the city, chiefly by the highway side. The Romans were forbidden by the law of the twelve tables to bury or burn the dead in the city; but some had their sepulchres in Rome, tnough they paid a fine for the indulgence. See JEWS.
GRAVESANDE (William James), LL.D. and F. R.S., an eminent mathematician, born of an ancient family at Delft, in Holland, in 1688. He studied the civil law at Leyden, but mathematical learning was his favorite amusement. When he had taken his degree, in 1707, he settled at the Hague, and practised at the bar, in which situation he cultivated an acquaintance with learned men; with a society of whom he
miles from north-west to south-east. Long. 228° 24′ to 229° 5′ E., lat. 54° 52′ to 55° 27′ N.
published a periodical review, entitled Le Journal Literaire, which was continued without interruption from 1713 to 1742, when he died. The most considerable of his works are, 1. A Treatise on Perspective; 2. An Introduction to the Newtonian Philosophy, or A Treatise on the Elements of Physics, confirmed by Experiments. 3. A Treatise on the Elements of Algebra for the use of Young Students; and, 4. A Course of Logic and Metaphysics. The ministers of the republic consulted him on many occasions, and bis skill in calculation was often of service to them; as well as his address in decyphering the secret correspondence of their enemies. In 1715 he was sent to the states to congratulate George I. on his accession; and, on his return, was appointed professor of mathematics and astronomy at Leyden, where he was the first that taught the Newtonian philosophy. He was intimately acquainted with Sir Isaac Newton.
GRAVESEND, a town of England, in Kent, situated on the banks of the Thames. It is twenty-three miles from London, and has a blockhouse mounted with cannon, to command the ships and river, opposite to Tilbury fort in Essex. This town was plundered and burnt by the French and Spaniards in the reign of Richard II., to compensate which, the king vested it and Milton with the sole privilege of carrying passengers by water to London, at 4s. the whole fare, or 2d. a-head, which was confirmed by Henry VIII. Coaches ply here at the landing of people from London, &c., to carry them to Rochester. This town and Milton were incorporated by queen Elizabeth, and granted some peculiar privileges. All outward-bound ships were formerly obliged to anchor in this road till they had been visited by the custom-house officers; but those homeward-bound always passed by without notice, unless to put waiters on board, if they are not supplied before. The town being burnt down in 1727, £5000 was granted by the parliament in 1731, to rebuild its church. In 1624 one Mr. Pinnock gave twenty-one dwelling houses, besides one for a master weaver, to employ the poor; and there is a charity school for twentyfour boys, who are both taught and clothed. The town-house was erected in 1764; and in 1772 an act was passed for paving and lighting the streets. Steam boats start for this town from the tower stairs every morning at eight o'clock, and return the same night.
GRAVITY, OF GRAVITATION (for they are most commonly used synonymously), signifies either the force by which bodies are pressed towards the surface of the earth, or the manifest effect of that force; in which last sense the word has the same signification with weight or heaviness. Concerning gravity in the first sense of the word, or that active power by which all bodies are impelled towards the earth, there have been great disputes. Many eminent philosophers, and among the rest Sir Isaac Newton himself, have considered it as the first of all second causes; an incorporeal or spiritual substance, which never can be perceived any other way than by its effects: a universal property of matter, &c. Others have attempted to explain the phenomena of gravitation by the action of a very subtile ethereal fluid; and to this explanation Sir Isaac, in the latter part of his life, seems not to have been averse. He has even given a conjecture concerning the matter in which this fluid might occasion these phenomena. But for a full account of the discoveries of this great philosopher concerning the laws of gravitation, the conjectures made by him and others concerning its cause, the various objections that have been made to its doctrine, and the state of the dispute at present, see the articles ASTRONOMY, ATMOSPHERE, ATTRACTION, EARTH, ELECTRICITY, FIRE, LIGHT, NEWTONIAN PHILOSOPHY, REPULSION, PLENUM, VACUUM, &c.
GRAVITY, SPECIFIC, denotes the weight belonging to an equal bulk of every different substance. Thus the exact weight of a cubic inch of gold, compared with a cubic inch of water, tin, lead, &c., is called its specific gravity.
GRAUNT (Edward), an eminent English grammarian of the sixteenth century. He was head master of Westminster school, and published a work entitled Græcæ Linguæ Specilegium, et Institutio Græcæ Grammatica. He died in 1601.
GRAUNT (John), F.R.S., author of a curious and celebrated book, entitled Natural and Political Observations made upon the Bills of Mortality. He was a haberdasher, but gave up his trade, and all public employments, on account of his religion He was educated a Puritan; afterwards professed himself a Socinian; but at last died a Roman Catholic in 1674.