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speaks his praise. On which Moawia exclaimed: O Lord! to thee be praise! "Can there be any stronger proof of Moawia's blessedness than that?"-Ibn al-Mubarak composed some poetry, from which we will quote the following verses:

Other men open shops to sell their goods, but you have opened a shop that you may sell religion;—a shop between the columns (of the mosque) and without a lock, where you give religion in exchange for the money of the poor. You have made of religion a falcon wherewith to catch your prey, but falconers never acquire riches by their trade (5).

One of his sayings was: "We sought learning that we might acquire worldly "advantages, and it led us to renounce the world." He died at Hit, on his return from an expedition against the infidels, in the month of Ramadân, A. H. 181 (November, A.D. 797). He was born at Marw in the year 118 (A.D. 736). -Hit is a town situated on the Euphrates, higher up than al-Anbâr; it belongs to the government of Irak, but it lies on the Syrian side of the river, whilst al-Anbar is on the Baghdad side. The Tigris flows between these two last cities. Ibn al-Mubarak's tomb is still visible at Hit and continues to be a place of pilgrimage. The history of his life has been compiled in two volumes.

(1) I have hitherto transcribed

by Ans, but the true pronunciation is Anas or Anes.

(2) Abu Ishak Ibrahim Ibn Adham Ibn Mansûr al-Balkhi was celebrated for his holy life. His father Adham was a native of Balkh and belonged to one of the first families in the place. He made the pilgrimage to Mekka with his wife who was then pregnant, and she brought forth Ibrahîm in that city. His father carried him round the Kaaba and begged of the assembled multitude to implore God's blessings on the child, and the effect of their prayers was manifested many years later. Adham was very rich and possessed numerous slaves, horses, hounds, and falcons; his son Ibrahim took the dogs and falcons one day, and rode out to hunt; he was galloping after the game when he heard a voice say: "O Ibrahim! what meaneth this sport? dost thou think "that we created thee in sport! Fear God and make provision for the day of need!" On hearing these words, he got off his horse and renounced the world. His death took place A. H. 160 (A. D. 776-7) —(Abû 'lMahâsin's Nujúm.)—This author gives him the surnames of at-Tamîmi al-Ijli (belonging to the tribes of Tamim and Ijl), which does not seem to be exact, as those two tribes were quite distinct; that of Tamim drawing its origin from Nizar by Modar and Tâbikha, and Ijl from Nizâr by Rabia.-Abû 'l-Fedâ gives some account of Ibrahim Ibn Adham and places his death in 161; al-Yàfi, who vaunts the high perfection which Ibn Adham had attained by his spiritual exercises, mentions that he died in 162.

(3) The life of Abu Bakr Muhammad at-Tortûshi will be found in this work. (4) His life will be found in vol. I. page 458.

(5) This is manifestly directed against some teacher of theology who opened a course of lectures in the mosque and required payment from his scholars. Such a proceeding was highly scandalous at that early period, but in later times it was permitted as a necessary evil.-(See d'Ohsson's Tableau général de l'empire othoman, tom. VI. page 143.)


Abû Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn Abd al-Hakam (1) Ibn Aâyan Ibn Laith Ibn Râfi was a doctor of the sect of Mâlik and a native of Egypt. He was the best acquainted of all Mâlik's disciples with the various branches of his master's doctrine; and on the death of Ashhab (2), the presidency of the Malikite sect devolved to him. He transmitted orally to his scholars the contents of Malik's work, the Muwatta, which he himself had learned by heart under that imâm's dictation. His riches and the numerous hotels (3) which he possessed enabled him to live in great state, and (for his virtue) he was treated with profound respect. He filled the office of justifier and impugner of witnesses (4); but neither he nor any of his sons would ever give evidence in a court of law, on account of a vow which he had previously made against doing so this particularity is mentioned by al-Kudài in his Khitat (or topographical history) of Old Cairo. It is said that on the arrival of as-Shâfi in that city, he gave him one thousand dinars out of his own money, with two thousand more, one half of which he had obtained for him from a merchant named Ibn Osâma, and the remainder from two other men. He was the father of Abû Abd Allah Muhammad (Ibn Abd al-Hakam), the disciple of as-Shâfi, whose life we shall give in the letter M.— Bishr Ibn Bakr (5) relates that some days after the death of Mâlik Ibn Anas, he had a dream in which that doctor appeared to him and said: "There is a man "in your country called Ibn Abd al-Hakam; receive the knowledge he may impart to you, for he is a sure authority."- Abu Muhammad had another son called Abd ar-Rahmân, who studied the Traditions and history, and wrote some works, one of which was on the conquests of the Moslims.-Abu Muhammad was born A. H. 150 (A. D. 767-8); some say 155; he died at Old Cairo in the month of Ramadân, A. H. 214 (November, A. D. 829). He was buried close to the tomb of the imâm as-Shâfi, at the south side of it; his son Abd ar-Rahman died A. H. 257 (A. D. 870-1), and was interred at the south side of his father's grave; so that, of the three tombs, Abû Muhammad's is in the middle.

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(1) In the first volume of this translation, this name has been erroneously transcribed Abd al-Hukm. (2) See vol. I. page 223.

(3) Hotel; in Arabic raba See vol. I. page 347, note (2).

He is called also the

Here, in the printed

(4) The justification and impugning of witnesses (tazkiya wa tajrîh) is a duty devolved secretly by the kâdi on some person of acknowledged probity living in his jurisdiction. This censor examines into the moral character of the witnesses and informs the kâdi whether their evidence is receivable or not. muzakki or purifier. Consult on this subject Hamilton's Hedaya, chap. on Evidence. Arabic text of Ibn Khallikân, is a repetition of the same fault already noticed, vol. I. page 417, note (1). (5) Abû Abd Allah Bishr Ibn Bakr at-Tinnîsi as-Shâmi ( a native of Tinnis and sprung from a family which inhabited Damascus) is known as a Traditionist. He studied under al-Awzâî and died towards the end of A. H. 205 (A. D. 821) —(Tab. al-Muhaddithîn.)


Abu Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn Wahb Ibn Muslim, a member, by adoption, of the tribe of Koraish, a doctor of the sect of Mâlik and a native of Egypt, was a mawla to Rihana, who was herself a mawla to Abû Abd ar-Rahmân Yazid Ibn 350 Unais, of the tribe of Fihr (or Koraish). He was one of the great imâms of that age, and had been a disciple of the imâm Mâlik Ibn Anas during twenty years : he put down in writing (his master's works) the greater Muwatta and the less. Mâlik said of him: "Abd Allah Ibn Wahb is an imâm." Abû Jaafar Ibn alJazzâr (1) mentions that Ibn Wahb set out (from his native place) to see the imâm Mâlik in the year 148 (A. D. 765-6), and never left him till he, Mâlik, died. He had commenced his studies under him more than ten years before Abd arRahmân Ibn al-Kàsim (2). When Mâlik wrote to consult him, he addressed his letters thus: To Abd Allah Ibn Wahb the mufti, an honour which he never conferred on any other of his disciples. Ibn Wahb saw and conversed with upwards of twenty persons who had studied under Ibn Shihâb az-Zuhri. His name and that of Ibn al-Kasim were once mentioned in the presence of Malik (3), and that imam said: "Ibn Wahb is a learned man, and Ibn al-Kâsim a juris"consult." Al-Kudai says in his Khitat: "Different opinions are entertained respecting the site of Ibn Wahb's tomb, but in the Majarr Bani Miskîn (4) "there is a small one, much dilapidated, which people call the tomb of Abd “Allah; it is a very ancient monument and is probably the tomb of Ibn Wahb." He was born at Old Cairo in the month of Zu 'l-Kaada, A. H. 125 (September, A. D. 743), but some say 124; he died in the same city on Sunday, the 24th of

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Shaaban, A. H. 197 (April, A. D. 813). He composed a number of wellknown works on jurisprudence, and was also a Traditionist. Yûnus Ibn Abd al-Aala (5), one of the imâm as-Shâfi's disciples, relates as follows: The khalif wrote to Ibn Wahb, desiring him to accept the place of kâdi at Old Cairo, on which he concealed himself (6) and avoided stirring from home; but one of his neighbours, Asad (7) Ibn Saad, happening to look out, and seeing him making his ablutions in the court-yard of his house, called to him and said: Why dost thou not go forth to the people and judge between them according "to the book of God and the sunna of the Prophet?"-On this, Ibn Wahb looked up and replied: "Is that the utmost extent of thy wisdom? dost thou not "know that the learned shall be raised to life with the prophets, and the kådis "with the princes?" (8)-Ibn Wahb was a man of learning and holiness, living in the fear of Almighty God. His death happened in the following manner: A student was reading to him out of his own Jâmî, or collection of Traditions, an account of the terrible signs which are to precede the day of judgment, when something like a swoon came over him, and he was carried to his house, he remained in that state till he expired. Ibn Yûnus al-Misri says in his History (of Egypt) that Ibn Wahb was a mawla to Yazid Ibn Rommȧna, who was himself a mawla to Abû Abd ar-Rahmân Yazid Ibn Unais; the statement first given is made by Ibn Abd al-Barr, and God best knoweth which is the truth. The following anecdote is related by Abd Allah Ibn Wahb: "When Haiyat Ibn Shu❝raih (9) received his yearly salary of sixty dinars, he used to distribute it all "in alms before he went home, but on entering into his house, he would find "this money again under his mattress. Haiyat had a cousin who, on learning "the circumstance, took his salary also and gave it in alms; he then sought it "under his mattress, but found nothing; and Haiyat, to whom he complained of "his disappointment, said to him: 'I gave to the Lord with full confidence, "but you gave to him merely to make a trial of his goodness.'"

(1) See vol. I. page 672.

(2) The life of this celebrated disciple of Mâlik will be found in this volume.

(3) Some mistakes disfigure this notice in the printed Arabic text: here

and in the first line وعند ملك زید



In the third line the word

has been put for

must be suppressed. A too scrupulous adherence to his manuscripts led the editor into these faults and some others, which shall be noticed when met with.

(4) I have not been able to discover any account of this place in al-Makrizi's Khitat.

(5) His life is given by Ibn Khallikân.

(6) The printed text has

(7) In place of Asad

and the autograph. The meaning of both words is the same. the autograph seems to have Shadin (8) See an observation on this subject in vol. I. p. 235, note (5).


(9) There were two Traditionists of this name, both of whom drew their origin from Hadramût. The first, who was probably the same person who is mentioned here, bore the surname of Abu Zaraa äsj and was a native of Egypt. He taught the Traditions on the authority of Ibn al-Mubârak, Ibn Wahb, and other doctors. He died A. H. 157 (A. D. 773-4), during the khalifat of Abu Jaafar al-Mansûr. The other Haiyat Ibn Shuraih was surnamed Abû 'l-Abbâs and was a native of Emessa. His authority is cited by al-Bukhari in that chapter of his work which treats of the prayer to be said in time of danger.-(Tab. al-Muhad.)


Abu Abd ar-Rahman Abd Allah Ibn Lahîa Ibn Okba Ibn Lahia al-Hadrami al-Ghâfiki (member of the tribe of Ghâfik) (1), a native of Egypt, was a narrator of Traditions, historical relations, and pieces in prose and verse, a great quantity of which he transmitted down. Muhammad Ibn Saad states that he was a man of weak memory, and that those who received from him oral information when he first began to give lessons, had most probably acquired more correct versions of the pieces which he taught them, than those who studied under him in the latter period of his life. It sometimes happened that his pupils read to him (out of their note-books) passages which he had never taught them (2), and he would make no observation on the subject; being afterwards told of the circumstance, he would reply: "It is not my fault; they come to me with a book and read it "in my presence; they then go away. Had they asked me if that was what I "taught them, I should have told them that it was not." In the beginning of the year 155 (A.D. 772), he was appointed kâdi of Old Cairo by Abu Jaafar alMansûr, and was the first person raised to the place of kâdi in that city by the 551 direct nomination of the khalif. He was removed from office in the month of the first Rabi, A. H. 164. He was also the first kâdi who made it his duty to be present when watch was kept for the first appearance of the new moon in the month of Ramadân (3), and this custom is still continued to the present time (4). Ibn al-Farrà mentions him in his Annals under the year 152: "In this



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