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(1) Al-Maghribi signifies native of Maghrib, or the West; a term applied not only to North Africa, but 10 Spain. From the silence of the Spanish Arab biographers, I am induced to believe that he belonged to the former country.

(2) This passage may perhaps signify, “ that his memory was very good”—a circumstance proved by the correctness of the pieces which he wrote from memory.

(3) This work is not noticed by Hajji Khalifa.

(4) This passage is given by two of my MSS., but it does not exist in the autograph. Its place is marked there, however, by these words in red ink, işi,salf lio, that is : let the passage on the fly-leaf be toritten here. This fly-leaf has been lost, and I suspect the authenticity of the passage as now printed, and must add that, none of my MSS. contain the life of Abû 't-Tåhir at-Tamimi to which reference is here made.

ABD AR-RAZZAK AS-SANANI.

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Abû Bakr Abd ar-Razzâk Ibn Hammam Ibn Nåfi as-Sanâni was allied, by right 499 of enfranchisement, to the tribe of Himyar. Abú Saad as-Samâni says of him: «• It is stated that, after the death of the Prophet, no one had so many visitors from • distant countries as he.” He taught the Traditions on the authority of Maamar Ibn Rashid, a mawla of the tribe of Azd and a native of Basra (see vol. I. p. xxiv, note), al-Auzâi, Ibn Juraij, and others. The chief imâms of Islamism in that period cited him as their authority for some of the Traditions which they taught; amongst the number were Sofyân Ibn Oyaina (who was one of his own masters), Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and Yahya Ibn Màîn (1). He was born A. H. 126 (A. D. 743-4), and he died in the month of Shawwål, A. H. 211 (January, A. D. 827) in Yemen.— Sandni means belonging to Sanda, one of the most celebrated cities in Yemen. In forming this relative adjective an n is added, as in Bahrâm derived from Bahrd (2), but such cases are of rare occurrence,

(1) The lives of all these doctors will be found in this work,
12) Babrâ is the name of a tribe sprung from Kudda,

ABU NASR IBN AS-SABBAGH.

Abû Nasr Abd as-Sayid Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahid Ibn Ahmad Ibn Jaafar, generally known by the name of Ibn as-Sabbagh (the son of the dyer), was chief Shafite jurisconsult of Persian and Arabian Irak. (By his learning) he equalled Abů Ishak as-Shirazi, and by his knowledge of the Shasite doctrines he surpassed him. Persons came from all countries to study under him, and his veracity as a traditionist, his piety, and his virtuous conduct, which showed him to be a model set up by God to confound the perverse on the day of judgment (1), were all equally conspicuous. His principal works are the Shâmil (comprehensive), which is not only one of the best treatises possessed by the Shasites on their system of jurisprudence, but also one of the most authentic in its traditional contents and the most conclusive in its reasonings;—the Tazkirat alAalim wa't-Tarîk as-Sâlim (remembrancer of the learned and safe path); the Odda supply provided for emergencies); these two last are on the principles of jurisprudence. On the opening of the Nizâmiya College at Baghdad, he acted as chief professor, but was replaced, after a lapse of twenty days, by Abů Ishak as-Shirazi ; he was reinstated, however, on the death of the latter. Abû ’l-Hasan Muhammad Ibn Hilal Ibn as-Sàbi (2) says in his History : “ The erection of the Niza

miya College was commenced in the month of Zù ’l-Hijja, A. H. 457 (Novem

ber, A. D. 1065), and this establishment was opened on Saturday, the 10th of Zů ’l-Kaada, 459 (September, A. D. 1067). Nizam al-Mulk having given * directions that the place of chief professor in it should be filled by Abu Ishak " as-Shirazi, it was settled with him that he should come forward and give “ lessons on that day. When the people were assembled, Abu Ishak did not

appear, and after a fruitless search, they decided on sending for Abů Nasr “ Ibn as-Sabbagh, who came and was installed. Abû Ishak then showed him“ self in the mosque where he used to teach, and by this conduct he excited the “manifest displeasure of his pupils, who ceased to attend his lessons and wrote “ to him that if he did not choose to profess in the Nizâmiya, they would quit “him for Abû Nasr Ibn as-Sabbàgh. He consented to their wishes, and on “Saturday, the first of Zû ’l-Ilijja, Ibn as-Sabbàgh was removed and Abû Ishak " seated in his place. Ibn as-Sabbâgh had occupied the post during twenty days.”

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Ibn an-Najjar says in his History of Baghdad : “On the death of Abû Ishak, Abû “ Saad al-Mutawalli was established in the vacant place; but, in the year

476 *(A. D. 1083-4), he was removed, and Ibn as-Sabbagh reappointed ; the latter “held the post till 477, when it was again conferred on Abů Saad, who held "it till his death." We have already mentioned something of this in the life of Abû Ishak as-Shirazi (vol. I. page 11). Ibn as-Sabbàgh was born at Baghdad, A. H. 400 (A. D. 1009-10), and he died in the same city, in the month of the first Jumada, A. H. 477 (September, A. D. 1084); or, by another account (given as a rectification of the preceding date), on Thursday, the 15th of Shaaban of that year. Towards the close of his life, Ibn as-Sabbàgh lost his sight.

(1) I have here paraphrased the word äa. See vol. I. page 887. (2) See vol. I. page 290.

ABD AL-WAHHAB AL-MALIKI.

The kàdi Abû Muhammad Abd al-Wahhâb Ibn Ali Ibn Nasr Ibn Ahmad Ibn 123 al-Husain Ibn Harûn Ibn Malik Ibn Tauk ath-Thàlabi, a. native of Baghdad and a doctor of the sect of Mâlik, drew his descent from Mâlik Ibn Tauk ath-Thàlabi, the lord of Rahaba (1). He was an able jurisconsult, an elegant scholar, and a poet. He composed a treatise on the doctrines peculiar to his sect, and this work, entitled at-Talkin (tuition), is one of the most instructive on the subject, although it forms but a small volume.

it forms but a small volume. Among his other numerous productions, may be specified the Maûna, or aid, and a commentary on the Risala (2). The Khatib (Abu Bakr Ahmad al-Baghdadi) speaks of him in the history of Baghdad, and says: “He received lessons from Abû Abd Allah Ibn al“Askari, Omar Ibn Muhammad Ibn Sabannak (3), and Abû Hafs Ibn Shả“hin (4). He transmitted from his masters a small portion of traditional in“ formation, and I wrote down (some of it) from his own lips. He was a trust

worthy traditionist, and an abler jurisconsult than he was never met with

among the Malikite doctors. In the examination of legal points he displayed “ great acuteness, and the exposition of the results to which he thus attained was “ marked by great clearness. He filled the place of kâdi at Bảdaraya and Bâku“saya (5); towards the latter period of his life he travelled to Egypt, in which

country he died.”—Ibn Bassåm speaks of him in the Dakhira in the following terms: “He was the last remnant of (the illustrious) men, and the (sole) tongue

(to set forth the doctrines of the followers of analogy (6); I met with some “poetry of his containing thoughts brighter than the morning, and expressed “in words sweeter than is the obtaining of success in undertakings. Baghdad

rejected him, as is the old established custom of cities towards their men of “ merit; and such is the rule of conduct which Fortune follows, in every

epoch, towards people of talent: he therefore bade adieu to its inhabitants, and “ said farewell to its waters and its shades. I was told that, on the day of his

departure, its great men and its eminent writers (7) formed a large company “and a numerous troop to escort him out of the city, and that he said to " them: “Had I found among you a roll of bread every morning and every

evening, I should not have turned from your town, as I would then have 666 obtained all I wished for.' He used to express his feelings on this subject in " some verses which I shall give here:

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Of all the abodes on earth, let Baghdad receive my salutation; it is entitled to re'peated salutations (of farewell) from me. I left it, not through hatred, and yet I knew (what perversity filled) the quarters on both sides of the river. But large as it was, I could find no ease within it, and even the means of subsistence were refused me. * That city is like a friend whose company is anxiously desired, but whose character * removes him (from our affection) and counteracts his good qualities.'

“ He then set out for Egypt, and as he passed through Maarra tan-Nomân " he met Abû ’l-Alà al-Maarri (vol. I. p. 94), who received him with hospitality, " and afterwards alluded to the circumstance in one of his poems. These

are his words :

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• Ibn Nasr the Malikite visited our country on his journey, and we praised the misfor* tunes which force a man to abandon his native place and to travel. When he explains . a point of law, his reasonings give new life to Malik, and when he utters verses, the Wandering King (8) seems to revive in his person.'

“On arriving in Egypt, he bore the standard (of superiority) and filled it far " and wide (with his renown) (9); he drew after him its chiefs and its princes ; “ there the signal favours of fortune reached him and gifts the most desirable “ poured like a torrent into his hands. But he had scarcely arrived there, when “ he longed to eat of a particular dish, and, having partaken thereof, he died. “ They relate that, when he rolled in agony, his soul mounting and descending “ in his throat, he exclaimed: There is no god but God! when we began to

live, we died !'”—He composed some charming verses, such, for instance, as the following:

I kissed that sleeping beauty, and she awoke, exclaiming : “Hasten to chastise the “the thief." I replied: "May my life be sacrificed for thy welfare! I am (not a thief,

but) an extortioner, and as such I can only be sentenced to restitution. Receive then “the kiss and abstain from tyranny; if that kiss suffice thee not, I shall add a thou“sand to it.” She answered: “(No! I must have) retaliation! this, as reason tells us, “ is sweeter than honey to the heart of the self-avenger.” The rest of that night, my 424 right arm was the girdle which encircled her waist, and my left arm was the necklace on her bosom. She then said: “ Did you not declare that you abstained from all worldly “ pleasure ?" “No!" I replied, “but it is from abstinence, such as that, that I abor stain !”

Baghdad is a delightful residence for those who have money, but for the poor it is an abode of misery and suffering. I walked all day through its streets bewildered and desolate; I was (treated with neglect) like a koran in the house of an atheist.

I had some verses on my mind, the author of which I did not know; but I have since found them attributed, in a number of places, to the kâdi Abd alWahhàb; they are as follows :

How can we hope to quench our thirst if the seas exact water from the wells ? (10) How prevent the vile from attaining their ends, if the great retire from the world to the pious solitude of the cell ? The elevation of the base over the noble would be a great misfortune. When the low and the exalted are on an equality, 'tis then we would find pleasure in the society of death.

(Ibn Bassâm) the author of the Dakhira mentions that Abd al-Wahhâb held the office of kâdi in the city of Isird (11), and another writer states that he filled that function at the towns of Bådarầya and Båkusaya in Irak. On being questioned concerning the time of his birth, he replied : “ I was born at Bagh“ dad on Thursday, the 7th of Shawwal, A. H. 362 (July, A. D. 973).” He died at Old Cairo on the eve of Monday, the 14th of Safar, A.H. 422 (February, A.D. 1031); some say, however, that his death occurred in the month of Shaa

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