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of those per
underwent the persecutions referred to in the epistle. Upon the whole, then, persecutions at the several cities named in the epistle are expressly recorded in the Acts: and Timothy's knowledge of this part of St. Paul's history, which knowledge is appealed to in the epistle, is fairlyr dedaced Ifrom the place of his abode, and the time of his conversion. farther be observed, that it is probable from this count, that St. Paul was in the midst of
in the midst of those secutions when Timothy became known to him. No wonder then that the apostle, though in a letter
tten long afterwards, should remind his favourite convert of those scenes of affliction and distress under which they first met. ,,Although this coincidence, as to the names of the cities, be more specific and direct than 2 many which wechaye pointed out, yet I apprehend there is no just, reason for thinking it to be artificial.; 1 for had the writer of the epistle sought a coincidence with the history upon this head, and searched the Acts of the Apostles for the purpose, I conceive, he would have sent us at once to Philippi and, Thessalonica where Paul suffered persecution, and where, from what is stated, it may easily be gathered that Timothyl accompanied him, rather than bave appealed to persecutions as known to Timothy; in the ascount of which persécutions, Timothy's presence is not mentidned ; it not being till after one entire chapter, and in the history of a journeyothreeoycars future to this, thats Timothy's nameloccursrin thevActs of dhe Apostles for the first timeainw estoitsiisy s ai 91903
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110 2197110 aid to it at br. ut if o'it oldsdora No.tl. 1:9v12d) 90: * TA event characteristic circumstance in this epistle, is the quotation from Epimenides, chap. i. 12: * One of themselves, even a prophet of their own, Said, The Cretians are alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies." ✓ DO 2201
Κρητες αει ψευσται, κακα θηρια, γαστερεςαρχαι. Ο "I call this quotation characteristic, because no writer in the New Testament, except St. Paul, appealed ' to heathen testimony's and because St. Paul repeatedly did so: "In his celebrated speech at Athens, preserved in the seventeenth chapter of the Acts, he tells his audience, that'« in God,
that " in God, we live, and move, and have our being; as certain also of your own poets have said, 'For we are also his offspring.”
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The reader will perceive much similarity of manner in these two passagesThe reference in the speech is to w heathen poet ; it is the same in the epistle!" In the speech the apostle urges: his hearers with the anthority tof a poet of their own ; in the epistle he avails himself of the same advantage. Yet there is a variation, which shows that the hint of inserting a quotation in the epistle was not, as it may be suspected, borrowed from seeing the like practice
Ito St. Paul'in the history; and"it'is this, that in the epistle the author
the author cited is called a prophet, , one of themselves, even a
prophet of their own." Whatever might be the reason for calling Epimenides a prophet ; whether the names of poet and prophet were occasionally convertible; whether Epimenides in particular had obtained that title, as Grotius seems to have proved; or whether the appellation was given to him, in this instance, as having delivered a description of the Cretan character, which the future state of morals among them, verified : whatever was the reason (and any of these reasons will account for the variation, supposing St. Paul to have been the author), one point is plain, namely, if the epistle had been forged, and the author had inserted a quotation in it merely from having seen an example of the same kind in a speech ascribed to St. Paul, he would so far have imitated his original, as to have introduced his quotation in the same manper, that is, he would have given to Epimenides the title which he saw there given to Aratus. The other „side of the alternative is, that the history took the hint from the epistle. But that the author of the Acts of the Apostles had not the Epistle to Titus before him, at least that he did not use it as one of the documents or materials of his narrative, is rendered nearly certain by the observation that the name of Titus does not once occur in his book.
It is well known, and was remarked by St. Jerome, that the apophthegm in the fifteenth chapter of the Corinthians, " "Evil communications, corrupt good manners,” is an iambic of Menander's:
Φθειρoυσιν ηθη χρησθ' ομιλιαι κακαι. .
Here we have another unaffected instance of the same turn and habit of composition. Probably there are some hitherto unnoticed ; and more, which the loss of the original authors renders impossible to be
OD 111 0rai ir now ascertained. juil
There exists a visible affinity between the Epistle to Titus and the First Epistle to Timothy. Both letters were addressed to persons left by the writer to preside in their respective churches during his ab
Both letters are principally occupied in describing the qualifications to be sought for, in those whom they should appoint to offices in the church ; and the ingredients of this description are in both letters nearly the same. Timothy and Titus are likewise cautioned against the same prevailing corruptions, and in particular, against the same misdirection of their cares and studies. This affinity obtains, not only in the subject of the letters, which, from the similarity of situation in the persons to whom they were addressed, might be expected to be somewhat'alike, but extends, in a great variety of instances, to the phrases and expressions. The writer accosts his two friends with the same 'salutatiòn, and passes on to the business'of his letter by the same trarisition.
i ( “Unto Timothy, my own son intthe farln?'Grace, mercy, and peace from God Our Father and Jesus Christ but Lörd. As I besought the folubide" still Ato Ephesus, 'when I went intd Macedónia," &c. 1 Tim. chap.i: 2, 3.
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" To Titus minetown son after the common faith: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour. For this cause teft I thee in Crete."?1 2 Tit. chapsrio 4b 05 90182 9 i iteIf Timothy was not to " gite heed to fables and endless genedlogies, which minister questions,” (1 Tim. chapo il 4.) Titus also was to “, avoid foolish questions, and genealogies, and contentions,” (chap. iii.p9..) and was to “ rebuke them sharply, notigöoing heed to Jewish fables.” (chap. i. 14.) If Timothy was to be a pattern, (rumos) (1 Tim. chap. ivo 122) csD was Titus (chap. ii. 7.) If Timothy was to “ let no man despise his youth,” (1 Tim. chap. iv. 12.)
Titus also was to “ let no man despise him," (chap. ii. 15.) This verbal consent is also observable in some very peculiar expressions, which have no relation to the particular character of Timothy or Titus.
The phrase, “it is a faithful saying,” (pratos doyos made use of to preface some sentence upon which the writer lays a more than ordinary ustress, occurs three times in the First Epistle to Timothy, once in the Second, and once in the epistle before lus, and in no other part of St. Paul's writings; and it is remarkable that these three epistles were probably all written towards the conclusion of his life, and that they are the only epistles which were written after his first imprisonment at Rome. Tund iz VOT
The same observation belongs to another singularity of expression, and that is in the epithet" sound," (unyairwr) as applied to words or doctrine." It is thus used, twice in the First Epistle ţo Timothy, twice in the Second, and three times in the Epistle to Titus, beside two cognate expressions, υγιαινοντας τη πιστει, and