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fourth branch, was carried by a narrow majority. There is no doubt, however, that the Senate will speedily take some action in the matter.
It has been resolved that Dr. Carpenter's services as Registrar shall not cease without having some permanent recognition within the walls of the University. A most influential committee has been formed in order to present his portrait to the University—a compliment for which there is good precedent.
The admission of women is likely to prove a source of great strength to the University. Out of the large number of 919 candidates who came up for examination at the June matriculation, no less than sixtythree were women. This is an advance of fifty upon the number in January, and shows conclusively that the concession was not made before it was wanted. Not less remarkable is the success attained by the new class of candidates. Of the 525 who have passed 51 are women. The female percentage is, therefore, no less than 80-9, against 55'3 among the men, or 57°1 in the aggregate.
UNIVERSITY OF SEVILLE,
July, 1879. AMONG the number of our special schools may be included the institutions supported by the Economic Society; the Academia of Noble Arts, bearing the name of Santa Isabel; the different schools established by the Sociedad de Fomento y Emulacion, the School for Equitation and many more. I will, however, only mention as especial those in which some auxiliary science is taught, such as the school for Latin grammar, where students from the University may, for a moderate fee, come during the hours of ten to eleven in the morning, and from seven to eight in the evening, to read up with far more profit than if they followed their studies in their own rooms. The Academia of Mathematics is another school for preparing candidates who aspire to obtain from the State appointments in any of the learned professions. Besides instruction in mathematics, drawing is taught, figure, topographical, and military, and both the English and French languages with all the fulness and depth necessary for admittance in any of the professions.
In the Academia of Commerce is given a complete instruction in mercantile science, embracing the different branches of arithmetic, exchange, arbitration, and book-keeping by double entry, caligraphy and shorthand, also French and English.
Among the scientific institutions for the advancement of education stands the Academia de Buenas Letras, established in the Royal Alcazar of Seville. As appears from documents preserved by this corporation, its origin was laid in the year 1751, when on the 16th April the first meeting was held in the house of Don Luis German y Ribon, but Señor Gonzales de Leon assures us that he held in his possession a note, which appears to us to be trustworthy, in which mention is made of this Academia having had its commencement on the 16th July, 1769. We are inclined to accept the assertion of Señor Gonzales, because the vicissitudes which this Academia suffered at the commencement were many, and very probably some of the books of Actas were mislaid, and
even all the documents belonging to the eighteen years which intervened between the dates of its foundations; but whether one or other date be the correct one, it certainly stands as one of the ancient institutions of this city, and moreover it is a positive fact that on the 19th July, 1752, Don Fernando VI. took it under his protection, giving it statutes, and granting to this society the right of apartments in the Royal Alcazar, for its use, and where it remained until November, 1809, when the society was dislodged by the Junta Central, since which time the Academie remained unhoused, losing the valuable archeological and numismatic treasures with which they had formed a beautiful museum in the Alcazar. The labours of this society were newly established in the Rectoral Hall of our University on the 5th September, 1820, continuing to hold their meetings there until 8th January, 1821, when the Government assigned to this Academia the Church of the former Convent of the Jesuit Fathers, called St. Hermenegildo; but when the Cortes came to Seville they judged that no place was suitable than this for the congress to hold their sessions, and therefore the Academia was obliged to remove and suspend its labours. In 1825 this society became newly established in the Hospital del Espiritu Santo, where it remained until 16th of October, 1835, when the Government assigned to it the former College of San Alberto. Finally, when this convent was expropriated, the Queen granted to this society the privilege of once more occupying in the Alcazar the apartments which Ferdinand VI. had granted to it in former years. In the midst of this wandering life and many vicissitudes, the zeal of its members, so great and persevering in upholding the memory of the many illustrious sons of Seville who had honoured her by belonging to this corporation, has not cooled, and in our days, when so many literary institutions have been established, it still continues to enrol members.
Academia of Noble Arts of Santa Isabel. This Academy was founded by the renowned Don Bartolomé Murillo under the denomination of the School of Painting, which he directed and sustained in conjunction with other professors. Carlos III. took this Academy under his protection in 1775, gave it statutes and granted an annual rent of 25,000 reals (2501.) towards defraying the expenses of house, lighting, and professors. In 1812 this Academy was translated to the ex-convent of Augustinians of San Acacio, where it still remains; the church of the convent being used for its meetings and examinations. This building was conceded to the Academy by Ferdinand VII., who increased the rent assigned to 30,000 reals (3001.)
This school had the glory of possessing such illustrious men as Francisco Herrera, Velasquez, Sebastian de Llanos y Valdes, Pedro Medina y Valbuena, Martin de Atienza y Calatrava, Cornelio Eschott, Luciano Carlos de Negron, and Lorenzo de Avila.
In later times it has produced the distinguished artists Esquivel, Gutierrez de la Vega, and Becquer, who so justly have become renowned in the School of Painting. In 1836, this institution was raised to the rank of Real Academia, with all the contributions and prerogatives granted by law, enjoying a grant of 30,000 reals (3001.).
This Academy holds classes for the diffusion of the knowledge and study of the three noble arts-painting, sculpture and architecture. It possesses the original manuscript statutes of the first period of the primitive School of Painting, in which is seen the signature of Bartolomé Murillo, clear and distinct. In its sculpture halls are seen several celebrated works of art, among which figure the group of the Laocoon, Venus de Medicis, Apollo Belvedere, Castor and Pollux, and the Dying Gladiator.
If, in narrating and describing the different heads and sections of the educational progress of Seville, I have more than once regretted the small limit allowed me in the columns of your valued Magazine, to give a full extension and the complete detail which the history of this subject merits, I have never felt this regret greater than to-day, when attempting to describe this school, which has done so much to further good taste, refinement, and culture, and which has rendered this city so renowned on account of the number of her sons who have become famous in it. Seville, indeed, can glory that her school was the first, if not the only one, which imparted to painting truthfulness and philosophy. Let us examine the works of this enchanting art executed before and after, and even at the commencement of the fifteenth century, and we shall see a colouring more or less vivid, a drawing more or less graceful, in which the artist endeavoured to depict a form ; but we shall not find naturalness—the imagination of the artificer, but not the rules of art for translating to the canvas, or to the marble, the animation and perfection, or defect, of the object and form which he proposed to himself to pourtray or imitate. And when I say that it was reserved to the Sevil. lian school to win this laurel, it must not be supposed that, in doing so, I confine myself to Spain ; the whole artistic world is a debtor to the Spanish school for having taught how to observe and study nature with the object of copying her and of imitating her colouring. Juan Sanchez de Castro was the originator of this school, and among his followers was numbered the famous Gonzalo Diaz; to this school also was due the improvement we perceive in the works of Bartolomé de Mesa and Alejo Fernandez; these were followed by Diego de la Barreda and his disciple Luis de Vargas, who flourished in the sixteenth century, as well as Antonio Arfian, Juan de las Roolas, Francisco Zurbaran, Luis Fernandez, Andres Ruiz Sarabia, Francisco Gonzalez the Carthusian, Francisco de Herrera the Elder, his brother Bartolomé, Francisco Pacheco, the master of the celebrated Don Diego Velasquez, Augustin del Castillo, and his brother Juan, sometime master of the immortal Bartolomé Esteban Murillo.
The admirable progress of the Sevillian school, due solely to the assiduous labours and talent of these geniuses, did not merit during its lengthened career the smallest protection or assistance from Government; the expenses which indispensably occurred were met by a voluntary contribution, as we are told by Señor Cean Bermudez, who transcribed the first list of subscribers in 1660, who bound themselves to pay 6 reals (141d.) per month. This list is headed by F. Herrera, B. Murillo, and a number of other artists, the whole monthly subscription amounting to 138 reals (about 11. 78. 6d.), which sum in our days would barely suffice to defray the expense of keeping the place clean. The Sevillian artists did not need any further means, or protection, or patronage, to attract to their school such celebrated foreign artists as F. Frutel, Pedro de Campana, M. Perez Dalecio, and others, whose works executed in Seville shine among those of the students of this Academy-Hernando Sturucio, Pedro de Villegas Marmolejo, Luis de Morales the divine, Basco Pereira, and many others.
In the seventeenth century flourished many more, but none outshone Murillo. The death of this famous artist seemed to be the sign of the gradual decadence of the Sevillian school, as one by one death removed the disciples of Murillo, Osorio, Gutierrez, Juan Garzon, Escobar, Joya, Pineda, Jose Lopez, Sarabia, Esteban Marquez the knight, Nuñez de Villávicencio, and Esteban Gomez, known as the Mulatto.
And on a par with painting also flourished sculpture and architecture in the works of Alonso Martinez, Pedro Garcia, Juan Norman, and Alonso Rodriguez in the fifteenth century, and those of Lopez Martin, Lorenzo del Vao, Bartolomé Morel, Luis de Vega, Torregiano, and many other sculptors, whose works, executed in the sixteenth century, are perfect models, and the greater number absolutely inimitable.
Architecture flourished also in those days in such geniuses as Diego Riaño, Minjares, Florentin and many more, too numerous to name here, as well as the renowned Juan de Herrera, names which have become immortalised, for they will subsist long after the sumptuous buildings erected in Seville shall have crumbled away. In 1600 still existed such sculptors as Parrilla, Bernardo Guijon, the celebrated Juan Martinez Montañez, Pedro Roldan and his daughter Luisa, and others; also many architects and artists who became no less celebrated ; but in the seventeenth century, that is to say, at the same period as painting began to descend in the scale of excellence, so also did architecture become corrupted with the bad taste evinced in the style introduced by Geronimo Barbas.
Fortunately the school has been re-established, and the Academia of Noble Arts of Santa Isabel, which I mentioned above, organised, and in our days we see painting regenerated by Arangos Gutierrez, Bejarano, Esquivel, Becquer; sculpture by the Astorgas, father and son, worthy competitors of Roldan; and there is no lack of living architects of sufficient genius for erecting buildings of as great artistic merit as any which are seen in our city.
Seville, the mistress of so many artistic glories, did not possess a building bearing the title of Museum, while each and every one of her convents exhibited works of art in greater profusion than in her cathedral—a wealth of rare objects which suffered a notable detriment during the French invasion at the commencement of the present century, when, under its shadow, a large number of rare gems passed into the possession of private individuals.
The suppression of convents and monasteries later on caused the disappearance, through want of precaution and foresight, of many objects of art which now adorn foreign galleries and museums.
In my next letter I shall give you some account of the Academia of Sciences, and other literary and scientific institutions.
Judas Maccabous and the Jewish own high priests as pashas. Then War of Independence. By Claude comes the period of Alexander the Reignier Conder, R.E. London: Great, and Macedonian rule begins, Marcus Ward and Co. 1870. Alexander enlisting a large Jewish
How great an advantage it is contingent for colonisation of the for any one about to write the his- city which yet bears his name in tory of a nation to have studied Egypt. At his death Palestine the country itself in which that passed over to the ruling family history was transacted may be of the Seleucidæ, Egypt going to gathered from the work before us. the Ptolemies, the first of whom The motto on the title-page of this carried off a further number of recherché little volume consists of Jews to Egypt, as prisoners, not the old question,“ Can these bones as volunteers, like those who populive?” Certainly, Lieutenant Con- lated one quarter of Alexandria. der has enabled the question to be The ancient Hebrew tongue was answered in the affirmative. It is by this time dead, the vernacular a brief but a pregnant period that being a variety of Chaldee, into saw the rise and fall of the Has- which the interpreters were wont monean dynasty; the historian has to render the Scripture in the not only got into a small compass synagogue.
For the Egyptian and presented with much clearness
Jews it was
more convenient to the important facts of the epoch, have a translation of the whole but he has drawn in a considerable made into Greek, and in 277 B.C. amount of subsidiary matter, which seventy elders were allowed by the is interesting in itself, as well as authorities at Jerusalem to pronecessary for the proper under- ceed to Egypt to execute the standing of the forces at work in translation. the age in question, and subme- Another quiet century passes, quently. The sketch forms a most which ends with the death of instructive and complete historic Antiochus the Great, and the monograph, and possesses, more- bequest of Palestine to the Egypover, the advantage - somewhat tian King as his wife's dowry. The rare when the subject is connected younger son of Antiochus sets with Judea-of being treated with aside this arrangement, and assumes as little a bias as if it were a history control over Jerusalem, which is no of Iceland or Japan.
longer a united and patriotic First is given, by way of intro- capital, but is divided between the duction, a brief abstract of Jewish factions of rival candidates for the history from the time of Ezra. high priesthood. A revolution The little nation was then estab- affords Antiochus Epiphanes a lished in its country, city, and pretext foradvancing on Jerusalem, temple, and remained a century in and possessing himself of the peace under Persian rule, with its wealth of the Temple. A massacre