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others. Ile was born at Baghdad, A. H. 296 (A. D. 908-9), and he died on the eve of Sunday, the 11th of the first Jumâda, A. II. 389 (June, A. D. 994); according to another statement, he died A. II. 382. His family belonged to Sarrman-råa.— Rummâni may here possibly signify a seller of Rumman or pomegranates, but it may also serve to designate a native of Kasr ar-Rummân, a wellknown castle at Wàsit. A great number of persons have received this surname for one or the other reason, but which of these it was that procured it for Abů ’l-Hasan is not specified by as-Samâni.

(1) The lives of the three persons just mentioned are given by Ibn Khallikàn.

ABU ’L-HASAN AL-HAUFI.

Abû 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Said Ibn Yûsuf al-Hausi was a learned grammarian and an able expositor of the Koran, on which last subject he left an excellent work. He directed the studies of numerous pupils with great success, and I have remarked, in many books on philological subjects, certificates in his own handwriting to prove that the possessors of these books had read them under his tuition ; in this he followed the general custom of teachers. He died on Saturday morning, the 1st of Zù ’l-Hijja, A. H. 430 (Aug. A. D. 1039).Relative to Hauf, from which the surname of Haufi is derived, as-Samâni says : “ I imagined that it was a village in Egypt, till I saw in al-Bukhåri’s historical “work that it is situated in Oman. Abù 'l-Hasan al-Hausi drew his origin from “ this place: he possessed a great portion of the works composed by Abû Jaafar “ an-Nahhås (vol. I. p. 81).” On this I must observe that Hauf is not, as be supposes, a village in Egypt, but a well-known tract of country in the province of Sharkiya, the capital of which is Bilbais : they give the name of Hauf to all the Rif, or cultivated part (1), of that country, but I do not know of any village there so called. Abû 'l-Hasan belonged to the Hauf in Egypt.-—The preceding article had been finished some time when I met with a notice containing the particulars of al-Haufi's life. From this it appears that he belonged to a village called Shubra ’n-Nakbla (2), in the province of Sharkiya; he then went to Old Cairo 460 (Misr), where he studied under Abû Bakr al-Adfuwi, and met with a number

of learned Maghribins, from whom he derived considerable information ; he then commenced as a professor of grammar, and composed a large work on that science, and another, in ten volumes, containing the grammatical analysis of the Koran. A great number of his treatises are still studied.

(1) The difficulty of reconciling the accounts, given by Arabic geographers, of the Hauf and the Rif was first pointed out by M. de Sacy in his Abd-Allatif. M. Quatremère has some observations on the subject in his Recherches sur l'Egypte, p. 179, et seq. The solution of the difficulty is due to M. Reinaud. See his translation of Abu 'l-Feda’s Geography, page 141, note.

اللعئمه or اللجه the autograph has a word which may be read النخلة In the place of (2)

or das

AL-AKHFASH AL-ASGHAR.

Abû 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Sulaiman Ibn al-Fadl, better known by the appellation of al-Akhfash al-Asghar (al-Akhfash the less), was a learned grammarian. The information which he communicated to his pupils was given by him on the authority of al-Mubarrad, Thàlab, and other great masters; his own authority was cited by al-Marzubâni, Abů ’l-Faraj al-Moàfa al-Jariri (1), and others. His character as a trustworthy transmitter of traditional knowledge is well established. He must not be confounded with al-Akhfash al-Akbar, or with al-Akhfash alAusat (vol. I. p. 572): al-Akhfash al-Akbar, whose real names were Abû 'lKhattab Abd al-Hamid Ibn Abd al-Majid, was a native of Hajar and a mawla to one of the tribes inhabiting that region. He was a grammarian, a philologer, and a transmitter of expressions peculiar to the Arabs of the desert, some of which were made known, for the first time, by himself. Sibawain, Abů Obaida, and other eminent scholars of the same period, received a portion of their information from him. As I was unable to discover the date of his death, I could not devote a special article to bim in this work (2). As for al-Akhfash al-Ausat, whose name was Said Ibn Masada, and who had been a pupil of Sibawaih, he has been already noticed (vol. I. p. 572).- Al-Akhfash al-Asghar and the

poet Ibn ar-Rumi were at enmity with each other, and as the latter was very superstitious, al-Akhfash used to go to his door, early in the morning, and pronounce words of ill omen : this prevented Ibn ar Rùmi from stirring out during that day. Being provoked at length by this annoyance, the poet attacked his enemy in a number of satires, which are still extant in the collection of his works; but al-Akhfash got them off by heart and cited them with approbation in his lessons ; testifying at the same time how proud he was of the honour done to him by Ibn ar-Růmi in satirizing him. When this came to the ears of the poet, he discontinued his attacks. “ The stock of poetry,” says al-Marzubảni, “ which al-Akhfash knew by heart and taught with the authorisation of his

preceptors, was very limited; this was also the case with his grammatical “ information. He never drew up a single work, nor pronounced a line of

poetry composed by himself ; and when questioned on a point of grammar, “ he would lose patience and dismiss the applicant with an abrupt refusal.” He died suddenly at Baghdad, in the month of Zů ’l-Kaada, A. II, 315 (Dec.-Jan. A. D. 927-8); others say, in the month of Shaabån of that year, or in the year 316. He was interred in the cemetery at the bridge of Baradàn. In the year 287 (A. D. 900) he visited Egypt, and in 306 (A. D. 918-9) he proceeded from that country to Aleppo.- Akhfash means having little eyes and a bad sight.Baradân is the name of a village in the dependencies of Baghdad ; it has produced a number of learned men and other remarkable persons.— “ This al“ Akhfash,” says Abû 'l-Hasan Thàbit Ibn Sinan (vol. I. p. 289, “ used to pay “ assiduous court to Abu Ali Ibn Mukla (3), by whom he was treated with

great attention and kindness. He one day complained to him of the extreme

indigence to which he was reduced, and requested him to acquaint the vizir “ Abů 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Isa with his situation, and pray him to inscribe his “ name on the list of literary men who received pensions. Abu Ali spoke to “the vizir on the subject, informing him that al-Aklfash was in very

reduced “ circumstances and had hardly any means of existence; for which reason be

begged of him to settle a pension on him as on the other literary men of the “ time. To this the vizir gave a positive refusal expressed in the rudest mari

ner, and that in the presence of a large company. Abû Ali felt so highly " offended at the vizir's conduct that he retired from the assembly and went “ home, repenting of having asked any thing from him. As for al-Akhfash, “ he remained in his former state and became quite dispirited. llis misery at length reached to such a pitch, that he was obliged by hunger to eat raw beet

It is said that he died suddenly of a spasm of the heart.”

66

roots.

(1) The lives of these two persons are given by Ibn Khallikan,
(2) See the author's observations in the preface, vol. I. p. 3.
(3) The life of Ibn Mukla is given by Ibn Khallikân.

AL-WAHIDI.

461

Abù ’l-Hasan Ali Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Mattůya al-Wahidi al-Mattůwi, the author of the celebrated commentaries (on the Koran), was the first master of his time in the sciences of grammar and koranic exegesis. The divine grace which attended him is manifest in his works; they were universally considered as excellent, and were frequently cited by professors in their lessons. Three of them, the Basit (in extenso), the Wasit (medium), and the Wajiz (compendium), are on the interpretation of the Koran, and their titles have been adopted by Abû Hamid al-Ghazzâli for three of his own works. He composed also a treatise on the motives for which the different portions of the Koran were revealed; a work called the Takhbîr (indication) (1), containing an explanation of the ninety-nine) excellent names given to God; a full commentary on the poems of al-Mutanabbi, surpassing in excellence all the numerous works on the same subject, and containing many curious observations : it is thus that after explaining the following verse :

When noble deeds, swords, spears, the daughters of Auwaj-all are assembled together,

He adds: “Auwaj was a stallion of noble race, belonging to the tribe of Hilal " Ibn Aâmir. The owner was once asked what was the greatest degree of speed “ which he ever remarked in him, and he replied: "I was riding him and lost “my way in the desert, but, seeing a flock of katas (2) going in quest of

water, I followed them with a tight rein, and we all arrived at the spring in “« a single heat.' This was a most extraordinary thing, for katas are very swift " of flight, and when they make towards a watering-place, their speed is much

greater than ordinary. This, however, was not suflicient for the Arab in his

description, and he added that he kept in his horse with a tight rein; had " he not done so, he would have outstripped the katas; which is a fine specimen “ of amplification. The horse was named Auraj (the twisted) for this reason : “ when he was a foal, a hostile troop came down to attack the tribe, on which “ they took to flight, and as the little animal had not sufficient strength to keep

up with them, they put him into a sack and carried him off. His back got a “ twist from this treatment, and he was therefore called Auwaj.”—The verse just cited is taken from the poem in which the author laments the death of Fàtik al-Majnùn (3).-Al-Wahidi was a pupil of ath-Thảlabi, the author of the celebrated commentary on the Koran (vol. I. p. 60); he learned from him the science of koranic interpretation, and ended by surpassing bim. He died of a lingering disease in the month of the latter Jumàda, A. H. 468 (Jan.-feb. A. D. 1076), at Naisàpûr.— Mattûwi means descended from Mattiya.— I do not know the origin of the relative adjective Wähidi, neither does as-Samàni mention it.I have since discovered that Abù Ahmad al-Askari (vol. I. p. 382) derives it from al-Wahid, the name of a person who was the son of ad-Din Ibn Mahra (1 :

(1) In the autograph this title is written Tahbir (embellishment). (2. See page 148 of this volume, note (3).

(3) His life is given by Ibn Khallikân, and the poem will be found in M. Grangeret de Lagrange's Anthologie Arabe.

(4) This Mahra may perhaps be the son of kudầa, noticed by Ibn Kutaiba. Eichhorn's Monumenta Hist. Ar. tab XI

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