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the book called al-Khisâl), being a collection of laws on the duties of Moslims, on what is lawful and what unlawful, on the Sunna, on the Ijma (3), and containing, besides, the opinions of the companions, of the Tâbis, and of the imams of Islamism their successors, on questions relating to jurisprudence and the rites of the pilgrimage. This is an extensive compilation, and contains the arguments employed by the different orthodox sects for and against the points in which they disagree. His Kitâb al-Ikhâm li Usûl il-Akhâm (4) is a treatise drawn up with great care, containing the proofs (on which the author founded his principles). His other works are, the Kitâb al-Fasl (a distinctive view of religions, and of the philosophical and religious sects); a treatise on the Ijmâ; Questions on points in the different sections of jurisprudence; the Marâtib al-Olûm, being a classification of the sciences, an indication of the manner in which they are to be stu472 died, and an exposition of their mutual connection; the Izhar Tabdil il-Yahud

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wa 'n-Nasara (exposure of the alterations made by the Jews and the Christians in the Pentateuch and the Gospel, and indication of those passages still extant with them which they cannot explain away) (5); he was the first who ever treated this subject. His other works are, the Takrib, etc. (study made easy), being an introduction to logic, written in the plainest language, and illustrated by examples drawn from the science of jurisprudence; this treatise is drawn up on an original plan, as it was the author's intention to make known the real nature of the science and remove the prejudices which were entertained against it as a futile study (6). "His master in logic was a native of Cordova named Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan al-Madhiji, generally known by the name of Ibn al-Kattâni (7), who was a good scholar, a poet, a physician, and the author of some treatises on medi"cine and the belles-lettres. He died later than A. H. 400 (A. D. 1009)." Such are the observations given, on the authority of Abu Abd Allah al-Humaidi, by Ibn Mâkula in his Ikmâl (8), under the head of al-Kattâni, where he notices two persons of the name. A little volume of Ibn Hazm's, entitled Nukat alArús (9), furnishes much information and contains a great quantity of curious and interesting matter. Ibn Bashkuwȧl speaks of him in these terms: "Of all "the natives of Spain, Ibn Hazm was the most eminent by the universality and "the depth of his learning in the sciences cultivated by the Moslims; add to "this his profound acquaintance with the (Arabic) tongue, and his vast abilities "as an elegant writer, a poet, a biographer, and an historian. It was stated

'by his son Abû Râfi al-Fadl that he possessed about four hundred volumes, “containing nearly eighty thousand leaves, which had been composed and "written out by his father."-"We never saw his like," says the hâfiz Abû Abd Allah al-Humaidi, "for penetration, promptitude in learning by heart, noble"ness of character and piety. I never met a person who could extemporise poetry more rapidly than he. He recited to me the following verses as his

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Though now on a distant journey and absent from thee in body, my soul abideth near thee for ever; nay, a faint image (of thyself) still fleets before the sense of sight, and (my) eyes, struck by that aspect, pour forth a stream of tears.'"

Ibn Hazm has thus again expressed the same thought:

My brother said: "Thou art afflicted because thou shalt be absent from us in body, "but thy soul will never leave us." I replied: "The sense of sight alone is worthy "of trust, and therefore one friend always desires the sight of another."

In one of his pieces he says:

A severe censor blamed me on account of one whose beauty had made me captive, and he long reproached me for my love: "How," said he, "can you have fallen a victim "to the beauty of the only (female) face you ever saw, and yet you know not how her body may be?" I answered: "The excess of thy blame proceeds from injustice; and, "if I pleased, I could make a long defence; seest thou not that I am a Zâhirite (exte"riorist), and place my trust in what is visible, till farther proof be given ?"

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The following verses are given as his by the hafiz al-Humaidi :

We remained a moment together and then departed, but a moment's interview can give no solace to the heart inflamed with passionate desire. The coming of lovers together seemeth not a meeting, if their reunion is again to be dissolved by separation.

Al-Humaidi mentions also that the following lines were recited to him by Ibn Hazm, as having been composed by Abd al-Malik Ibn Jahwar (10):

Though persons of genius may be dwelling far apart, their souls can still hold con-
How often have pen and paper enabled the hearts of separated lovers to meet 475



Ibn Hazm had arguments and discussions with Abû 'l-Walid al-Bàji (vol. I. p. 593), too long to be explained here. He was so ardent in his attacks against

the learned men who preceded him, that hardly a single one could escape the virulence of his tongue. By this conduct he estranged the hearts of his contemporaries and became an object of hostility to the jurisconsults of the epoch. These persons, animated by their enmity, concurred in refuting his opinions, exposing them as false, treating him as a reprobate, cautioning their rulers against the dangers of his proceedings, and forbidding the public to have any intercourse with him or to listen to his lessons. In consequence of this, the sovereigns of the different (Spanish) provinces expelled him from their states, and he was driven to the open country near Labla (Niebla), where he breathed his last on Sunday afternoon, the 27th of Shaabân, A. H. 456 (August, A.D. 1064); some say, however, that he died at Manta Lisham, a village of which he was the possessor. It was of him that Abû 'l-Abbàs Ibn al-Arif (vol. I. p. 150) said: "The tongue of Ibn Hazm and the sword of al-Hajjaj Ibn Yûsuf were brothers." His reason for making this remark was the frequency of Ibn Hazm's attacks upon the imâms (11).-His father Abû Omar Ahmad was a vizir under (the hajib al-Mansûr, the founder of) the Aâmirite dynasty, an accomplished scholar, an elegant writer, a man of learning and holy life. He died in the month of Zû 'lKaada, A. H. 402 (June, A. D. 1012). The following verse is mentioned by Abû Muhammad Ibn Hazm as forming part of the admonitions addressed to him by his father the vizir :

If you wish to pass your life in wealth, adopt such a mode of life as will not cause you discontent if reduced to an inferior station.

Al-Humaidi (12) relates the following anecdote in his Jadwa tal-Muktabis: The vizir Abû Omar Ahmad was sitting at a public audience given by his master alMansûr Abû Aâmir Muhammad Ibn Abi Aâmir, when a supplication was presented to him by a woman in favour of her son who had incurred al-Mansûr's anger by some heinous crime which he had committed, and was then detained in prison by his order. The perusal of the paper excited al-Mansûr's wrath to an extreme, and he exclaimed: "By Allah! thou has reminded me of “him.” He then took a pen with the intention of writing on the document the word yuslab (let him be crucified), after which he handed the paper to the vizir, who immediately drew up a regular order conformable to the decision, and addressed to the commander of the shorta, or police guards. "What have


written there?" said al-Mansûr to him. "An order for his liberty," replied Abû Omar.—" And who directed you to do so?" exclaimed al-Mansùr in a passion. The vizir handed him the supplication on which al-Mansûr had written by mistake the word yutlak (let him be set free). "By Allah!" said al-Mansûr, on seeing it, "I meant to write let him be crucified." He then struck out the word with the intention of writing yuslab, but he again traced the word yutlak. The vizir then took the paper, and was drawing up an order for the prisoner's liberation, when al-Mansûr remarked it, and exclaimed, in a more violent passion than at first: "Who bid you do so?" The vizir showed him the decision in his own handwriting, and the prince effaced it, but again committed the same mistake. The vizir then commenced a new order of liberation addressed to the wâli, or commander, and al-Mansûr, who observed him, flew into a greater rage than ever. Abû Omar then showed him the paper on which, for the third time, he had written yutlak. Struck with the singularity of the circumstance, al-Mansûr exclaimed: "Be it so! let him be set at liberty in spite of me; for "when God wills that a man should be set free, I cannot prevent it."— Abû Muhammad (Ibn Hazm) had a son, gifted with a noble character and great talents, whose name was Abû Râfi al-Fadl; he was employed in the service of al-Motamid Ibn Abbad, the sovereign of Seville and other cities of Spain. It happened that the suspicions and anger of al-Motamid were excited against one of his uncles, Abu Talib Abd al-Jabbâr Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Abbâd, and he thought of putting him to death. The vizirs were therefore called in, and he said to them: "Does any of you know if there was ever a khalif or a prince who put his uncle to death for conspiracy against him?" On this Abû Râfi stepped forward and said: "May God's assistance never fail you! we know of none who "ever did so, but we know of one who pardoned his uncle who had revolted "against him, al-Mamûn, namely, who forgave Ibrahim Ibn al-Mahdi” (vol. I. p. 16). When al-Motamid heard these words, he kissed the speaker between 471 the eyes and gave him thanks, after which he sent for his uncle and treated him with affability and kindness. Abu Râfi was slain at the battle of az-Zallâka, on Friday, the 15th of Rajab, A. H. 479 (October, A. D. 1086). We have given a full account of this engagement in the life of Yûsuf Ibn Tàshifin.-Labla (Niebla) is a town in Spain.-Manta Lisham is a village in the dependencies of Labla; it belonged to Ibn Hazm and he visited it from time to time.

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(1) He means the suburb on the left bank of the Guadalquivir.

(2) The sect of the Zahirites, or exteriorists, was founded by Dâwûd Ibn Ali al-Ispahâni (see vol. I. p. 501). They were so denominated because they understood the words of the Koran in their plain literal sense, and rejected the tawil, or allegorical interpretation to which other sects have recourse in certain cases. They differed completely from the Hanifite sect in rejecting the kids (see vol. I. Introl. p. xxvi and p.534). (3) See vol. I. page 534.

(4) It would appear from the title that this work treated of judicial astrology.

(5) He means the texts in which the Moslims pretend that the mission of Muhammad is foretold.

المخرقين The autograph gives the true reading (6)

الكتاني Read here and lower down (7)

(8) See vol. II. page 248.

(9) This title may signify bridegroom-or perhaps bridal-anecdotes.

(10) Abû Marwan Abd al-Malik Ibn Jahwar, an eminent vizir, a kåtib, a poet, and an accomplished scholar, lived in the reign of Abd ar-Rahmân an-Nasir, the Omaiyide. This prince died A. H. 350 (A. D. 961). — (Bughya tal-Multamis.)

(11) See vol. I. page 150.

(12) His life is given by our author.


The hâfiz Abu 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Ismail, surnamed Ibn Sida, and a native of Murcia, was highly distinguished by his learning in philology and grammar, and by his acquirements in such portions of these sciences as were preserved by oral transmission. On this matter he composed some works, one of which, the Muhkam (fixed), is very voluminous and contains information on the various branches of philology. Another extensive work of his on the same subject is entitled al-Mukhassis (the specifier). He composed also a commentary, in six volumes, on the Hamâsa, entitled Kitâb al-Anîk (1), and a number of other instructive treatises. Ibn Sida was a blind man, as his father also; he made his first studies in philology under his father, who was well versed in that science, and he then received lessons from Sàid al-Baghdàdi (vol. I. page 632) and Ali Ibn Omar at-Talamanki. The latter reverts to this circumstance in the following anecdote: "When I went to Murcia, the inhabitants requested me most ear"nestly to explain the Gharib al-Musannaf (2), on which I told them to look for "a person to read the book to them, and that I would follow him in. my own

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