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A. The same; the Bey had charge to conduct them to Bournou. Q. Does your Highness know what became of the other?
A. He continued his journey, but fell ill at Houssor, in the dwelling of a Tripoline merchant established there, and resuming his travels before he was perfectly recovered, relapsed, and died at Tombuctoo.
Q. Does your Highness know whether either of them left any papers, books or effects ?
A. No; but I will direct an inquiry. Nfoors never destroy papers.
Q. Does your Highness imagine it difficult for a party to reach the Nile (Niger) through the dominions of your friend the King of Bournou?
A. Not in the least; the road to Bournou is as beaten as that to Bengazi.
Q. Will your Highness grant protection to a party wishing to proceed that way?
A. Any person wishing to go in that direction, I will send an embassy to Bournou to escort him thither, and from thence the King will protect him to the Nile. But I must first clothe him as a Turk.
Q. Will he be subject to much troublesome enquiry on that head?
A. No; but he must not say he is a Christian. People in the interior are very ignorant; I will clothe him myself in a particular way.
Q. But will your Highness guarantee perfect safety of such a person against all accidents, except sickness or unavoidable casualties? A. I do guarantee.
Q. Will your Highness undertake to produce, in the event of disaster, the papers and effects of the deceased, with a particular note written by himself, commencing on the day he might be taken ill, stating his opinion, &c. of the cause, and continued daily, until he shall be rendered incapable of writing? This question is not to be considered by your Highness as a doubt of safe conduct, but it is absolutely necessary for the consolation of the friends of the defunct.
A. I do undertake to produce all such papers; but there ought not to be less than four persons, in case of misfortune, by sickness.
Q. Will your Highness give directions that a party shall not be obliged to proceed at the will of the escort, nor to travel in the heat of the sun, nor in the summer unless they like?
A. The strangers shall be masters. From September to May is the time I recommend for an Englishman, but travellers have a fault of generally hurrying a caravan.
Q. Will you also answer for the assistance and guarantee of the King of Bournou !
A. Most certainly.
Q. Can your Highness afford protection to a party going to the southwestward ?
A. Nearly the same as through Bournou. Q. Are there many boats passing and re-passing that part of the Nile (Niger) south of Bournou, and what is their object?
A. They are numerous, and carry effects and passengers to the several towns on the banks of the river.
Q. What are the names of the towns in that direction, your Highness has the greatest commerce with ?
A. In Wangarra, Cuthorra, Cashna, Zangarra, Gooba, Bombarra, Houssa and Tombuctoo, there are always some Tripoline merchants.
Q. Next to Bournou, what place has your Highness most direct communication with?
A. Souat, which is the principal station for caravans that proceed to Tombuctoo, by way of Gadam.
Q. What is the form of government at Souat?
A. Republican, with a sort of head chief or prince, the same as at Houssa and Tombuctoo.
Q. In what manner do the subjects of your Highness obtain leave to pass those countries at a great distance from
frontier? A. The travelling merchants insure themselves by giving presents, trifling ones, to the head of the country they arrive at, who affords them safe conduct to the next.
Q. How is the usual trade between Tripoli and Tombuctoo conducted? A. It is mostly carried on by Fezzan and Gadam merchants.
Q. What number of camels does the Tombuctoo caravan usually consist of ?
A. Not so many as formerly; not above a hundred and fifty. The caravan to Morocco is the largest, as they have not so far to go; it is generally composed of three or four thousand camels.
Q. When does the Fezzan caravan proceed to Tombuctoo?
A. The direct road is rather by Gadam, as the nearer one. They set out commonly in March, travel greatly by night, and return towards November, where there is a very extensive fair held at Gadam, resorted to by immense numbers.
Q. What are the principal articles of traffic?
A. Slaves, gold, gum, hides, dates, barracans, nitre, cotton cloth, and great quantities of a fruit resembling coffee.
Q. What is the greatest length of time the caravan is without the means of replenishing their water?
A. Eight days.
*Such, Captain Smith writes, “is the substance of the principal questions I asked of the Bashaw, whose patience and good nature during the long conference were eminently conspicuous, particularly as the discussion of several of them required time and reference.
• I trust such conduct will be duly appreciated, when it is considered that this prince, by the communications thus made, and the free access to his several towns, already given to me, has fully proved himself above the mean intolerance that actuates the generality of Turks; and more especially as he is acting thus in defiance of the memorable prophecy, stating that all these countries are to be restored to the Christians, and which is so universally believed, that the gates of the several towns and fortresses are closed every Friday from 11 A. M. till i P. M., the day and hour predicted for the event; to this, in a great measure, may be ascribed the jealous anxiety with which the Turks watch our desire of exploring these countries.' A' A 2
The Bashaw, pursuant to his promise, directed an immediate inquiry to be made respecting the effects of the late Mr. Horneman; and it
appears that his books, papers, several sealed letters, instruments and clothes, were sent to Tripoli by the Bey of Fezzan, and were all to be delivered to Mr. M.Donnagh, (formerly surgeon to the consulate,) by an intriguing man at the Bashaw's court, one Signor Naudi, a notoriously bad character. The consul-general is now actively employed in investigating the whole transaction.
Captain Smith had, on a journey to Ghirza, learned that Horneman died at Aucalas; but from this conversation it would appear that a second European was with him. It could not be his Germap servant, as intelligence of his death had reached England beore it was known that Horneman had set out from Fezzan ; thus it remains doubtful whether Horneman may not have died in Tombuctoo. Such a circumstance would give great additional interest to his papers, which, if still in existence, we have every reason to hope, from the zeal and intelligence of Consul Warrington, assisted by the powerful aid of the Bashaw, may yet be forthcoming.
Tripoli has always been considered as the most eligible point to commence the prosecution of discoveries in the interior of northern Africa; and, in consequence of the friendly disposition of the present bashaw, and his readiness to meet the views of the British government, it has been determined to appoint a person of talent and enterprize to the official situation of vice-consul at Mourzouk, the capital of Fezzan, which is a dependency of Tripoli, and governed by a bey, who happens to be a son of the bashaw, and, what is not very usual, on the most friendly terms with his father. From Fezzan, it is understood, there is a constant communication with Kashna, Bornou, and Tombuctoo, the kings of which are all on good terms with the bashaw of Tripoli. From a MS. journal, found in a convent at Tripoli belonging to the Propaganda Fide, and recording many interesting details concerning the missions to Bornou about the beginning of the last century, it appears that the road thither had once been perfectly open and safe even for Christians;—the passės between Fezzan and Bornou, however, being at that time occupied by robbers, the fathers took the route to Cassina, where, it would seem, they all perished from the badness of the water.*
* The following is a close translation of an extract from this curious manuscript:' 1710, July 20th.-The before-mentioned Rev. Carlo Maria, of Genoa, prefect of Bornou, and Father Serafino, his companion, departed from Fezzan, leaving in Tripoli Father Anastasio, who, being unable, trom infirmity, to prosecute the mission to Bornou, returned to Christendom, having embarked July 13th.
* 1711.-In the month of August Father Carlo, prefect of the mission to Bornou, 110t being able to undertake his journey in that direction, the passes being closed in
Under the present favourable auspices for exploring Africa, the gentleman selected for this interesting enterprize is Mr. Ritchie, late private secretary to Sir Charles Stuart, ambassador at Paris. He is a young man, and is said to possess excellent abilities ; full of zeal for scientific research; and well acquainted with the use of mathematical instruments; he is familiar with various branches of natural history, and possesses besides, the advantage of having been brought up to surgery. Captain Marryat of the navy has, we understand, volunteered his services to accompany him, and, should they be so fortunate as to embark on the Niger, he will, no doubt, be of most essential service in exploring that mysterious stream.
The French, who are by no means backward in encouraging the prosecution of discoveries in science, and who, properly enough, consider Africa as a sort of common theatre on which all nations have a right to exercise their talents, have got the start of us on the pre ent occasion. The moment it was understood in Paris that Mr. Ritchie had been appointed to this mission, it was officially announced to Sir Charles Stuart, by the minister of marine, that it
consequence of the multitude of robbers and other impediments, set off froin Fezzan accompanied by Father Sevarino di Salesia. They took their way together towards the kingdom of Agadez. Having at length arrived there, they found ihat the objects of the Propaganda could not be prosecuted there; and, having received intelligence that in the kingdom of Cassina they would have an opportunity of exercising their spiritual office, particularly in some village or other of that kingdom, but not in the capital, they set off in the name of the Lord, leaving the kingdom of Agadez. Atter a journey of a month with the caravan through the desert, they arrived at the capital of the kingdom of Cassina. Since, however, the secrets of God are inscrutable, it so happened that, through the malignity of the water there, the above-mentioned Father Prefect grew sick, being attacked with the swelling of the whole body, and in eight days gave up his spirit to God. On hearing this, the king of that kingdoin, then dwelling at Cassina, had him stript of every thing that he possessed. Father Sevarino di Silesia, his companion, seeing every thing thus wrongfully taken away, presented him. self before the king, and told him that those clothes were his property, that which his deceased companion had, being not his own private property, but in common; he therefore begged him to make restitution; hereupon the king answered, 'If you desire me to do this, turn Mahommedan as I am. The missionary declined this proposal; upon which the king rejoined, · Begone then, and for thy deeds thou shalt die like thy companion.' In fact, within two or three days, he fell sick of the same infirmily as the prefect, and in the course of eleven days, he also gave up his spirit to his Creator.
• The whole of this account we received from a Moorish merchant, a native of Tripoli in Barbary, named Hadjie Milleit; he gave it us with an air of compassion, having been the faithfui companion of these fathers from Tripoli to Fezzani, and from Fezzan to Agadez. The tidings of their death, with all its circumstances, he received from a merchant who accompanied these fathers from the kingdom of Agadez to the kingdom of Cassina, and who, out of ten that set out on that journey, was the only one that did 310t perish by this sickness, he having escaped by the will of God, that he might bear the tidings of the unhappy end of these religious. He further informed us, that in the said kingdom of Cassina the sickness has always existed, in consequence of the badness of those waters—those who are not accustomed to them dying infallibly upon drinking them; those therefore who wish to trade there negociate with the caravan of Agadez, and go on no farther. He also stated that all foreigners dying in Cassina are not ins terred, not even the richest merchants, but are carried out into the country and left a prey to the wild beasts,'
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was the intention of the French government to send an expedition into the interior of Africa; that he had deemed it proper to make this communication, lest the English might suspect it was meant to counteract the proceedings of Mr. Ritchie; whereas the idea bad long been in contemplation, and the preparations were now nearly complete. Soon after this it was whispered in Paris that a person was engaged for this undertaking who had recently made some noise in the literary world; this was no other than Bahdia, the Spaniard, who, having some years ago been initiated, in London, into the external rites of Mohamedanism, visited the north of Africa and part of Asia, and, on his return, published his travels under the fictitious name of Ali Bey. It was also said that he was to proceed, in the first instance, to Cairo; tlience, by joining the Tombuctoo caravan, to penetrate to the Niger; which he was to trace up to its source, and thence to cross over to the Senegal; the main object being that of ascertaining the possibility of opening a communication between Tombuctoo and the French settlement at Gallam. Acommittee of the Institute, consisting of Messrs. Delambre, Cuvier, and some other members, were appointed to draw up his instructions ; and the government having agreed to advance him 25,000 francs, and to provide for his family in the event of his death, he set out on his travels about the beginning of the present year, ostensibly by the way of Egypt, but actually, we have been informed by a member of the Institute, for Tripoli, with a view of anticipating Mr. Ritchie. We have no objection to see two great nations endeavouring to outstrip each other in their exertions for extending the limits of human knowledge; but it appears as absurd in the French, as unnecessary, to have recourse to duplicity, for no other purpose, that we can conceive, (for we would not attribute it to so mean a passion as jealousy,) than that of throwing a veil of mystery over their proceedings.
After all, we are much mistaken if the shortest and best road for Europeans, to Tombuctoo, will not be found to be that from Cummazee, the capital of the Ashantees. It is somewhat remarkable that we should just now, for the first time in the course of two hundred years, learn any thing of this rich and populous nation, whose capital is situated not a hundred and fifty miles from the British factory. In the course of last year a mission from the governor of Cape Coast Castle was sent to Zey Tooloo Quamina, king of Ashantee, consisting of Mr. Bowdich, Mr. Hutchison, and Mr. Tedlie. For some time after their arrival in the capital they were kept in close confinement, owing to the jealousy instilled into the king's mind by some Moorish merchants, assisted by the intrigues of the notorious Daendels, once the servile tool of Buonaparte, and now the representative of his Netherlandish majesty on this part of the coast of Africa. Their good conduct, however, enabled