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guilt of the wicked are very unequal, President Appleton proceeds in the following very solemn strain:

"We are, by no means, however, hence to conclude, that there will be but a small difference between the lowest saint, and the least guilty sinner. This difference is represented by a gulph, wide and impassable. The reasons are obvious; 1st, there is an essential difference of character. The righteous man has that, though in a very imperfect degree, which the wicked man has not. He has a real affection for the divine moral character. Holiness is the predominating principle in his heart. Of this nothing is possessed by the wicked. But, 2ndly, the one is treated with mercy, according to the liberal constitution of the Gospel; the other, having rejected the terms of mercy, receives no award but that of justice.

"We are now to consider more particularly what is asserted in the text; i. e. the difference between the end of the righteous and that of the wicked. The wicked is driven away in his wickedness; but the righteous hath hope in his death.

"The reason, why the subject has the strongest claims on our attention, is, not only that we must all die: but must die in one of the characters, here mentioned.

"1. The wicked is driven away in his wickedness. The last words, in his wickedness, inform us, that the sinner's guilt is uncancelled. The whole account stands without abatement. There are the sins of his youth, and of his riper years; the sins, which originated in strong passion or sudden temptation, and those, which were committed with presumptuous deliberation;-sins, which, on retrospection, gave alarm to his conscience, and those, which be thought so trifling, as to give his Creafor no offence;--some, which are now fresh in his recollection, and many, which through distance of time, or other cireumstances, have long since escaped his memory. In the long account, may be enumerated the iniquities of the tongue, slander, rash speaking, profaneness, or violation of truth;-the iniquities of the heart, such as impious discontent, and insubordination to the righteous dispensations of God; emotions of envy, pride, cruelty and revenge, towards his fellow men, whose happiness he was bound to consult.

"The whole series reaches from the first dawning of reason, the commencement of moral agency, to the day of his death. The amount has been enlarging through every successive period of VOL. IX.

life. Under the guilt of all these sins, and in possession of that temper, in the exercise of which they were committed, he is called to his final reckoning.

"This leads us very clearly to perceive the appos iteness and force of another term used in the text; "The wicked is driven away in his wickedness." He dies with reluctance; perhaps with terror and agony. Unwilling to abandon a world, which has been the scene of his activity, and of all his enjoyments, he is terrified at the righteous character of his Judge, and at the purity of that law, by which he must be tried. To what part of the universe can the impenitent, in the hour of death, look for oonsolation? On the earth he is forbid to remain. The powers of medicine, the influence of friends, their passionate lamentations, and even the ardent intercession of Christians, cannot avail to retard death for a single hour. Clothed in terror, it is seen to advance with steady, unbroken steps. The plaints of the victim produce neither delay nor commisseration.

"Now, if the sinner is driven away in his iniquity,if his hold on earth is forcibly broken,-if all his enjoyments vanish, if all his plans of business, of pleasure, of elevation, are disconcerted, if he is no more to have any portion in the things, which are done under the sun, from what part of God's vast dominion can he expect relief? On what object can he fix his thoughts with complacency? Shall he direct his eyes to heaven, and behold Jesus sitting at the right hand of God? Shall he contemplate angels swift to execute the commands of the divine Sovereign; or the spirits of just men made perfect, who are redeemed from the earth out of all nations and kindreds and tongues? These splendid and sublime objects he may indeed contemplate; but the view, far from alleviating, augments his anxiety. These objects he never viewed with affection or desire;-they are objects, to which the pleasures of sin, however unsatisfactory and evanescent, were cordially preferred. That solemn view, which he now has of them, serves only to convince him how utterly unqualified he is for their enjoyment. As he did not choose them in health, so neither does he choose them in the view of death. To his taste, impure and unrenewed, there is, in the Christian paradise, nothing, which can afford pleasure. A man, overtaken by a tempest, might be glad to take refuge for an hour in a sordid cottage, though his heart would sink within him, at the thought of its becoming his permanent abode. So the sinner may, on his dying bed, consider heaven, with as aversion, somewhat less than the


terror, with which he views the place of punishment, forever exposed to the storms of divine wrath; but a palace is not so much better than a cottage, as he esteems earth preferable to heaven.. He would sicken at the thought of an endless residence among those, who are employed without intermission in spiritual exercises: who rest not day nor night, saying, Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God Almighty." pp. 7-10,

The discussion of the latter clause of the text is scriptural and impressive; but we have room only for the character of Mr. South gate, and the close of the sermon.

"Mr. Frederick Southgate, lately a Tutor in Bowdoin College, and son of the Honorable Robert Southgate, Esq. of Scarborough, was born August 9, 1791. He became a student in this seminary, in the year 1806; and, during his connexion with it, maintained what is usually denominated a fair moral reputation. Sensible of the value of good character, and by no means indifferent to literary distinction,possessing a good portion of discernment, a quick apprehension, together with a fancy at once vivid aud luxuriant, he passed through the usual course of collegial studies, in a manner, highly satisfactory to his instructors, and flattering to his numerous connexions.

"In that state of society, which prevails in our country, few young men go into the world, with prospects more alluring. With a high degree of sensibility to the joys of youth,-with that vivacity and Courtliness of manners, which ensure to young men a ready reception into the gayer scenes of life,-with talents and acquirements highly reputable, with friends able and disposed to smooth the path to honor, preferment and usefulness, he viewed the world presenting her fairest visage. Under these circumstances, he entered on the study of law, which he prosecuted for nearly two years. During this time, he found himself inclined to contemplate religion with a degree of interest previously unknown. The impression, made on his mind, as he informed me, was not peculiarly strong, nor was it such, as to excite any high degree of terror. But it was such, as to produce an obvious change of character and pursuit. I speak this with entire confidence; and for the correctness of the remark, appeal to all, who intimately knew him both before and after this period. Those scenes, and that society, which are highly intere ting to most persons of his age and prospects,

were from that time, divested of their charms. He had, before, to use his owu expression, been living without God in the world; regarding much more, the present, than a future world,-more anxious for the esteem of men, than for that honor which cometh from God only. Henceforward he pursued a different object, and enjoyed different pleasures. He became, in a very high degree, crucified to the world, and the world to him by the cross of Christ. He entertained exalted views of Christian morals and Christian character; and strove with uncommon ardor, and permit me to say, with uncommon suc cess for that exalted virtue, which it is the object of Christianity to promote.

"If he encountered neglect or contemptuous frowns on account of piety, far from resenting it, he did not indulge, what I fear, is not uncommon even among good men, I mean the pride of makmg it known. Humility was prominent in his religion. And, if charity consists in warm desires for the best interests of men, and active beneficence for the promotion of this object, he was clothed with it as with a gar


"The duties of an instructor in literature and science, he executed with ease to himself, with fidelity and good success. But, while he was attentive to the more obvious duties of his employment, he was much more concerned for the moral improvement of those, who were under his care. He watched, with unceasing solicitude, any appearance of rel gious sensibility.

"Few persons have ever held time in higher estimation. Had he known himself to be as near eternity, as the event has proved, that hewas, I know not, that he could have lived differently, or have used his time with more rigid economy. His residence in this place evinced the possibility of preserving a habit of exalted piety, in the midst of an employment, highly res ponsible, and requiring unwearied attention; for it is not easy to conceive, that any person could, with more propriety, than he, have adopted the language of the apostle, when he said in the name of Christians, We have our conversation in Heaven. He thought and spake, and acted as seeing Him who is invisible.

"During the latter part of the last winter term, he began to be affected with a cough attended with general debility; neither of which was removed by that medical and parental attention, which he received in the vacation. These complaints, a few weeks after his return to college, became so alarming, as to render it necessary for him to relinquish the office, which he sustained.

"His deportment in sickness, both before and after his removal from this place,

well corresponded with his previous character. His approaching end was contemplated with solemn interest, but with deep submission. As death advanced, his mind settled into a state of increasing calmness and joy. To haye spent an hour with him a few days before his final departure, I shall always consider, as an high privilege. It was, at that time, most evident, that the righteous hath hope in his death. He said little; but never did I witness such serenity and pleasure beaming from mortal countenance. Nor was I ever so impressed with the words of the sacred writer in relation to Stephen, They beheld his face as it had been the face of an angel. There was a kind of celestial radiance, indicating that peace of God, which passeth all understanding; a joy unspeakable, and full of glory. He survived but a few days, and died in the enjoyment, of a hope," full of immortality." pp. 18-21.

The following paragraphs are the close of an address to the students, and of the sermon.

"You know how piously, how justly, and unblamably he lived among you. You witnessed his appearance at the commencement of his sickness; and you have been acquainted with the manner in which he died. In him we have seen, that the hope of the righteons is gladness.

"Was his piety a chimera? Was it either fanatieism or superstition? This, I am confident, is not suspected by an individual

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Could that change be unimportant, the consequences of which were so salutary and undeniable? Is it rational to deny the excellence of that, which produces a settled course of distinguished and increasing virtue, and prepares men for eternal and sublime enjoyments? And can you be se cure without commencing a life of piety, while death seems to be levying upon us an annual contribution?* If religion is essential to salvation, the want of it must be dangerous. It is the righteous only, who have reason to hope in their death. The wicked, we have seen, are driven away in their wickedness. Yet a little while, and the wicked shall not be; yea, thou shalt diligently consider his place, and it shall not be. The hypocrite's hope shall perish; it shall be cut off, and his trust shall be as the spider's web. The fear of the wicked, it shall come upon him.

"The offers of life are now made to you, with divine sincerity. Your repentance would produce joy in the presence of the angels of God. It would give joy, if made known to the spirits of just men made perfect. Especially would it give joy to his spirit, who, a few months since, with affectionate importunity warned and besought you to flee from the wrath to come." pp. 23, 24.

The style, in which this sermon is written, is neat, chaste, pleasing, and worthy of a person at the head of a literary institution. The great truths inculcated are such, as it becomes a sound, orthodox, evangelical divine to press upon the conscience and the heart.

"Charles Wilson, member of the Junior Class, died the last summer, at Topsham. The summer preceding, died, in his junior year, Lewis Page, at Readfield."



The following speech, though containing here and there a little Scottish harshness, is on the whole admirable. The harsh expressions are easily explained by the general tenor of the speech. The orator established these two points beyond debate; first, that it is better that those, who are willing and able, should' pur

chase the Bible for themselves, than that they should receive it as a gift; and secondly, that Christian nations ought to make sacrifices to a vast and indefinite extent to send the Bible to all the nations on earth. The reader should recollect, that Scotland is better supplied with Bibles, than any other country in the world; unless we except some small portions of New England. ED. PAN.

Speech of the Rev. Mr. CHALMERS of Kilmeny, at the Institution of the Fife and Kinross Bible Society.

I DEPRECATE the idea of the home supply of Bibles, as a great or prominent object of this institution. If the home supply be the main object of our Society, I contend that, in a country like Scotland, it may, do incalculable mischief. I may say of Scotland, that, with the great mass of its population, the habit of purchasing Bibles for themselves is already established. Shall we do any thing to unsettle this habit and to substitute in its place the officious and misplaced bounty of a society? Every society has an obvious interest in giving itself as important and as business an air as possible. It must give importance to its own principle. It must do justice to its own peculiar style of proceeding. It must prove that the devious track into which it has entered, leads to an object worthy of the deviation it has made. Let us accumulate funds Let us assume the title, and give ourselves all the wealth and consequence of a great and useful society. Let us shew the world, that it was not for nothing that this object was proposed. Collect all for this object; and spend all, or as much as we can, upon it. Give to the people at home, and prove, by the extent of our distribution, and the multitude of Bibles dispersed among them, that we have not been idle. I maintain, that in a country like ours, where the people have got into the habit of purchasing Bibles for themselves, the operation of a society like this is most mischievous. The people of Scotland look upon the Bible as a necessary of life. They count it worth the sacrifice of the money paid for it. Our security that the Bible is possessed and valued by our people is, that it is bought by them; and shall this security be transferred from the deeply seated principles of their own hearts, to the exertions of a society, irregular in its movement, and uncertain in its duration? If I take a survey of my parish, with the view of ascertaining the number of Bibles, and find that there is not a single house or a single family without one, to what am I to ascribe this cheering phenomenon? To the fact, that the value of the Bible is a principle rooted in the hearts of my people, and that they count it worthy of its price. This forms a strong and perpetual security, and must be left to its own undisturbed operation. It is not enough that they count the Bible worthy of a sacrifice. The sacrifice they should be left to make. It is too fine a principle for us to repress or to extinguish and if, in the spirit of an in

judicious charity, I were to come forward with a fingering interference of my own, and teach them to look no longer to themselves, but to a public repository, I would destroy a habit which forms the glory and the security of our country. Teach them to look to such a repository as this for a Bible, and not to their own individual sentiment of its worth and its importance to them; let this habit be persisted in for years, and substituted in the place of that respectable habit of purchasing for themselves, which is now completely established among them;-do this, and you place the religion of our people at the mercy of every capricious element in the human character. breath of wind may blow this repository into atoms. The vote of one of our meetings may annihilate it. The faith and religious knowledge of our people, instead of depending on habits which are now fixed and in full operation among them, are made to depend upon us and upon our fluctuating majorities. In the course of years, the repository is voted down, and the habit of purchasing is extinguished, and this Society of ours, like the institution of the poor rates, leaves the people of the land in greater want, and poverty, and nakedness, than ever.


Leave a well-educated people, like the peasantry of Scotland, to themselves. There may be cases of aged poor who stand in need of a larger copy, or of poor in large and manufacturing towns, who are genuine objects of such a charity. These cases can be provided for as they occur. But the great objection to home supplies forming a main or systematic part of our proceedings, is, that the limit. which bounds this species of charity is so narrow and so hazardous, that the moment you transgress it, you are sure to do mischief. People must see the injurious tendency of overdoing these home supplies. If they subscribe at all, they will be very sparing and very moderate in their subscriptions. A languor and a heartlessness are sure to hang over the operations of a society, the object of which is so very ticklish and so very questionable. It may go through all the lifeless forms of a public body,but it is quite impossible that there can be that enthusiam in its members, and that cordiality in its supporters, which you see exemplified to such an animating degree in the British and Foreign Society. Connect yourself with the great and sublime objects of the parent institution, and you lift off the dead weight which fettered and restrained you. You see, that in their magnificent designs, there is an extent which gives you room to expatiate. You cannot push your liberality to extravagance. You feel no

limit on the amount of your subscriptions. The considerations which made you hesitate as to the peasantry of Scotland, do not apply to England and Ireland, and the mass of their uneducated populations. There you interfere with no habit. The habit is yet to form. Bibles are not bought; and the experiment which the society in London is making at this moment is where Bibles are not bought, let Bibles be given. Give them the book, and at the very time, too, when a sister society is giving them the capacity of reading it. Let the habit of reading the Bible be first introduced among them. This must be done by the external application of a society at the outset. The habit of reading it will induce a value for the Bible, and this value for it will induce a habit of purchasing. After this habit is fairly established, we shall leave it to its own undisturbed operation. The fostering care of our society may be necessary in the first instance, but after it has wrought its object, this care shall be withdrawn, and give its undivided strength to other countries and other populations.

There is nothing chimerical in this experiment, or in this anticipation. It is the result of an experiment already tried. The peasantry of Scotland may be con-sidered as a fair example, when a great many years ago they were presented with the Bible; and they were presented, by the institution of schools, with the capacity of reading it. What is the consequence? The habit of purchasing for themselves has been formed. Education transmits itself from father to son; and when a Scottish boy leaves the cottage home of his parents, though small be the equipment with which their poverty can furnish him, you are sure to find that a Bible forms part of it. This they make over to him as his guide and companion, through the adventures of an untried world. So beautiful a picture to the moral eye as this, would only be tarnished and defaced by the interference of a society. Give none of your repositories, none of your institutions to us-and leave to its own undisturbed operation the religion of our people, and the humble piety of our cottages.

The experiment has been more recently tried in Wales. The protecting arm of a Society was necessary in the first in stance. They threw in Bibles among them, and they have given education to their peasantry. What is the consequence? Wales, instead of being the recipient, is now the dispenser of that gift to other countries. The peasantry of Wales not only buy the Bible for themselves, but they subscribe, with unexampled liberality, for the Bible to others. The impulse is given, and the motion

communicated by that impulse is persevered in. The good that is done perpetuates itself. The habit is formed, and if not tampered with by some fingering society, will be persisted in to the end of time.

Now, what has been done for Scotland and Wales is still to do for England and Ireland. engines to bear upon the population of They are bringing the same

these countries which have borne with such undeniable success upon the peasantry of Scotland,-schools and Bibles; and if, both in the press and in the parliament, the praises of the Scottish peasantry are lifted up as being the most moral, the most religious, the most classically interesting people in Europe, does not the danger of tampering with such a people as this form a most decisive argument against home supplies being carried too far? and does not the duty of extending their knowledge and civilization to other people, and carrying our exertions to other countries where the ground is still unbroken, and where some external application is necessary for the commencement of the work, form an equally decisive argument in favor of those foreign objects which, in number and in magaitude, call for the united contributions of the whole empire?


The British and Foreign Bible Society does not stop at home. It looks abroad, and carries its exertions to other countries: and, if we admit the identity of human nature in all climes, and under all latitudes, the transition is not a very violent one, to pass from England and Ireland to those countries which are situated without the limits of our empire. there be wisdom and liberal philosophy in the attempt of enlightening the peasantry of our island, by what unaccountable delusion is it that these denominations are changed, and the terms fanaticism and folly applied to the attempt of enlightening the peasantry of the countries that lie beyond it? We have too much har dihood, I trust, to be frightened away from a deed of glory by the bugbear of a name! We have too much liberality to let the sound of another country and another language freeze the noble principle of benevolence within us! And too much science to think that the men of these countries are essentially different from our own. They occupy the same place in the classifications of natural history. They have all the essential characterist es of the species. The same moral experiment is applicable to both; and if schools and Bibles have been found, in fact, to be the engines of civilization to the people of Britain, it is altogether a fair and direct exercise of induction, when

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