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might not have officiated as chancellor of the exchequer, borrowing as carelessly, and spending as profusely, as if they had all the paper-mills of the kingdom at their command.
Every thing, however, has its day; and notwithstanding the moral and political utility of the Four-in-hand Club, it has met with its Vingt de Mars and given place to the usurping Yacht Club, which may be considered as reigning the most fashionable and popular school of the day, and dividing with the Musical academy, and the new Literary institution, the cares and the favours of the great fountain of all honour and distinction. At the present moment, in which all true patriots lament the decline of our naval power and consideration, this revival of nautical tastes and habits cannot but be most gratifying; but it is as a school of odoeporic philosophers that they are interesting to the present discussion. The Argonautic expedition was, doubtless, a philosophic enterprise of a similar description, and the golden fleece a mere type of that great object of philosophic research, the to. TPETOV.
Nor could a better theatre be well chosen than a ship, for the study of all the virtues which most dignify our nature. How refreshing to the mind, to pass at once from the slavish and fawning habits of a court, to the frank, manly freedom of the Ward-room !* How invigorating both to the senses and to the feelings, to exchange the luxury and the dissipation of the saloon and the supper chamber, for the fresh breezes, salt junk, and hard biscuit, on board the “Lively Kitty."-On the contrary, how heartily sick of all the vanities of the world must the pupil be while rolling in his cot in a gale of wind! The benevolence of tars and their sympathy for human suffering is notorious; and their love of liberty has been manifested too frequently in the course of English story to admit of denial. Who knows what Blakes may arise from the bosom of the Yacht Club, to assert the rights of the people in the two Houses of Legislature ? and who shall presume to say, that all the professors of that club will not return from a cruise with kinder feelings concerning the distresses of the people, and with more national notions, than Britons of late years have imbibed by their too close contact with Continental despots, and slavish ministers, in Royal congresses and Imperial progresses ?-How, indeed, is it possible for mortal man to tread the quarter-deck of a British vessel, and breathe the free air that blows over the ocean, without swelling into all the dignity of manhood, and burning to assert that liberty which was the foundation of England's maritime and commercial grandeur? How mean, how paltry, how contemptible is the theatrical splendour of courts, to the proud pomp of a royal navy! how poor the utmost wealth of despotism, in all its “barbaric pearl and gold,” to the displays of prosperous commerce in the crowded ports of Liverpool or London! Yes, this is indeed a school for kings to study in, and for British senators to form themselves to the independence, the gravity, and the courage, their place in society demands. Who, with his hand made hard by honest labour, and his mind steeled by the dangers and hardships of a nautical life, will dare hold out the one
e ri Is not the sea
Made for the free,
Land for courts and chains alone :
Here are we slaves,
to receive the hire of corruption, or debase the other to the habitual practice of dishonesty? That the Yacht Club is also important to the national welfare, as a school of chastity, cannot be doubted.—The hot blood of our luxurious nobility will certainly be cooled down below the fever point, to which indolence and high living on shore heretofore raised it. At least, when a great man is “ all alone by himself at sea,” whatever may be his meditations, he cannot be practically attacking the cara sposa of a benchfellow in the Senate.
Subservient to this great society, which may be regarded as the Eton of nautical education, are those preparatory seminaries, the Funny Club and the Sailing Club, on the River Thames. Swift, were he alive, would insist that the former possessed many great “scullers,” and that no “Roman" of antiquity could compare with them. All in these schools learn the labour of pulling against the stream, and acquire a practical knowledge of what may be done by perseverance. Here, too, they are taught the experience of tacking in time, the inconstancy of gales, and the uncertainty of all that depends not on a man's own exertions. With such establishments, we need not despair of the moral and political regeneration of Old England. With their aid things must go on “swimmingly,” and the bark of the state be kept “afloat ;" there will be no want of“ pilots to weather the storm," and when all hands are piped, Britain shall again muster such a crew on her deck as will fill her enemies with dread, and carry the glory of her name to the remotest bounds of the earth. Valeant quantum valere possunt.
TO THE LAST LEAF OP AUTUMN.
Ultimus suorum moriatur !
No more wilt thou o'ershade the walk
time and dare
The Achilles of the modern Greeks. The Greeks have just sustained the bitterest loss which has befallen them during the whole of their short, but brilliant contest with the enslavers of their country. Marco Botzari, the Achilles of their causethe Achilles in all things but his invulnerability-has perished prematurely in the flower of his age and his fame; and has left none behind him that can adequately supply his place. They have still many excellent leaders; but none who unite into one noble whole the various admirable qualities possessed by that distinguished person.
The following is extracted from a paragraph in the Morning Chronicle, which purports to give the substance of a letter just received from Missolonghi :
“ In the neighbourhood of Vallo the Greeks had again assembled in considerable force, made a most determined resistance, and compelled the invaders to take the direction of Carpanesi. The Suliotes, having marched upon this place in the end of July, under the command of their illustrious chief Marco Botzari, and having been joined by other chiefs as they advanced, came up with the barbarians on the evening of the 8th of August; and on the next morning, by one of those daring movements for which this nation of Christians has always been so justly celebrated, they gained a great victory over the Turkish army. During this memorable engagement Marco Botzari placed himself at the head of four hundred of his countrymen, penetrated to the centre of a column of five thousand of the enemy, and by his example infused the greatest confidence into his small but determined phalanx of Suliotes. He was severely wounded in the groin, but concealed his situation until, in the heat of the action, he received a musquet-ball in the head, and instantly fell, &c.”
" Another account states, that Marco Botzari penetrated to the tent of the Pacha himself, whom he slew, but was wounded by a black servant, faithful to the Pacha, while he was exhibiting the head to his soldiers."
As there is, unhappily, no reason to doubt the fact of the death of this distinguished patriot, it may be interesting to our readers, and, what is of even more importance, it may serve the almost sacred cause which he espoused, if we give a slight notice of his public life and character : and we do this the rather, as we have reason to believe that the source from whence we derive our information is the only one at present in this country that is capable of supplying it.
Marco Botzari was the son of the celebrated Kitzo Botzari, a member of one of the principal families of Sulei, and a head of his tribe during their long war with the late Ali Pacha. When this war was terminated, by the fall of Sulei into the hands of the Pacha, Kitzo Botzari retired to the Ionian Islands ; but Marco, the subject of this notice, remained in Albania, with several other members of
his family, and lived for some time in the most entire obscurity. During this period, no circumstances occurring to call forth any peculiar traits of character, nothing was noted of him but that he was a young man of great personal courage, and with high notions of justice and honour. A trifling anecdote will here illustrate his views on the latter points. A particular friend of Marco's was playing at cards with two persons who were in the service of Ali Pacha, at the time the latter was at Prevesa ; and this friend, in conjunction with one of the other players, had conVOL, VIII. NO. XXXV.
trived to mark the cards, and thus make a certainty of winning the third. But Marco, who was present, and observed what had been done, openly noticed it; saying, “ There is no true victory, my friend, but that which is gained by fair skill and open courage.".
It was at the time Ali Pacha was reduced to the last extremity, when besieged in Joannina, (in the latter end of the year 1820) that Marco Botzari first began to distinguish bimself as a warlike leader of his countrymen, the Suliotes. At this epocha the Suliotes had leagued themselves with Ismael Pacha, the successor of the deposed Ali, in the hope of recovering their country, which the latter had conquered from them. In this league, under the command of his uncle Noto Botzari, chief head of the Suliote tribe, Marco led several bold and successful attacks against the troops of Ali--chasing them to the very gates of the fortress of Joannina. This league, however, was almost immediately broken, on the discovery that Ismael Pacha,---jealous of the Suliotes once more gaining any head in Greece, -had actually 'employed a company of his Albanian troops to take the field in the rear of the little tribe of Sulei, for the purpose, if possible, of extirpating them altogether.
On the discovery of this perfidy, the Suliotes made common cause with Ali Pacha against the Turks; and in this league Marco displayed, from time to time, the most conspicuous military talents, and became the terror of all the Pachas, and of the Albanians. On one occasion, in particular, with a little troop of about thirty followers alone, he succeeded in dislodging Hassan Pacha, of Negroponte, from the village of Strivina, in the plain of Arta. And on another occasion, with a very inferior force, he defeated and took prisoner a Bey of Gregaria, at the foot of some mountains near Joannina.
Again, when the town of Arta was occupied by the expedition consisting of mixed troops-Greeks and Mahomedan Albanians-who were acting for Ali Pacha, Marco, with a little troop of twenty-five men only, night after night attacked the fortified dwelling of Combotti, which is a place of great strength, and in which were posted the Hase nadar (treasurer) of Chourshid Pacha, and Soultzo Kersca, with two hundred men; and not a night passed that the enemy did not lose several men, either by the boldness and suddenness of his attacks, or by his dexterity in picking them out with his musquet through the windows and other accessible points of the place. Twice, also, he set fire to the building; and had nearly succeeded in mining and blowing it up.
On the defection of the Mahomedan Albanians at Arta, which happened shortly after this, he retired with his own countrymen to the mountains of Sulei.
At the period now alluded to, the distinguished talents and reputation of Marco Botzari bad acquired for him the particular notice of Prince Mavrocordato, and the uses to which he applied the influence which these gave him, immediately cemented a friendship between the two ļeaders; and at the time that the general rising of the Greeks against their Turkish oppressors took place, Marco was the first to submit himself to the regular government that was formed, and to use his almost resistless influence with his countrymen to induce them to follow his example. When it is considered that Marco was (unlike his