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support of our theory. The following incident, anong several others of the same kind, has been related to us. When Buksoo, in 1816, crossed the Nerbuddah, his only intention was to have plundered the Nizam's country, between the Kistnah and Godavery, but on crossing the latter river he was met by a faqueer, who informed him of the richness of the country round Guntoor, and of the facility with which it might be plundered, from there being no troops in the neighbourhood. The offer of conducting him thither was immediately accepted, all the former plans were changed or relinquished, Guntoor became the object of cupidity, and the faqueer rode on horseback at the head of the toll' by the side of Buksoo, through a circuitous route of above 700 miles. They laid waste the Northern Circars nearly up to Calcutta, and after the completion of the business a voluntary contribution of 1200 or 1500 rupees was raised among them, and given, as the reward of his services, to the faqueer, who, on the retreat of the toll, went on a pilgrimage to Muckwanpoor.

On this occasion, they collected an immensity of plunder, and perpetrated the most horrible cruelties. And it should be recollected, that they had been making similar incursions into the dominions of our allies ever since the year 1811. In 1814 they entered the province of Bahar, and up to the period of which we have been treating twice invaded the Madras territories. In the last inroad their augmented numbers and wanton atrocities threw the whole southern part of the peninsula into a state of alarm, Passing without opposition or difficulty through the states of the Peishwah and the Nizam, they spread themselves over the face of the country, and carried fire and sword almost from one end to the other of the district of Ganjam. On their return home, laden with the spoil and stained with the blood of our subjects, we have the satisfaction to say that several parties of them were overtaken and defeated by the Company's troops, against which they were not able to contend. The success of our detachments under Majors Lushington, Smith, and Macdowall, as well as of the Sepoys under Lieutenant Borthwick, in the southern part of India, and the equally brilliant exploits of several officers of the Bengal army, had a very salutary influence in checking the boldness of the enemy, inspiring our own force with confidence, aud convincing the native powers that we still preserved our ancient superiority in arms and the art of war.

Heretofore their practice has, been to plunder all places they can master; when resistance is made they dismount from their horses, and either keep up a fire from some shelter upon the defenders, or, in the event of their having no fire-arms, shower down large stones upon them till they oblige them to relinquish their post, when the Pindarries charge forward and storm it. If any of the


assailants be killed or wounded they give up the attack. The wounded are carried away on horseback as well as their means permit, but when unable to accompany the toll they are left to the mercy of the villagers. As soon as they get possession of a town every man seizes such of the unfortunate inhabitants as fall in his way, and compels them by threats and torture to make a discovery of the place where their wealth is concealed. The usual mode in which they extort confession is by tying a cloth, filled with ashes or fine dust, over the nose and mouth of the unhappy sufferer, and, by striking him forcibly on the back or breast, obliging him to inhale it. The suffocating pangs which result from this treatment being found the most certain and expeditious method of overcoming human fortitude, they are the most usually inflicted. No regard is paid to age or sex; all are doomed to the same excruciating torments.

Of the spoil thus obtained there is no regular division, but each man retains possession of what he can secure. Yet as some must remain on the outside of the town or village to hold their comrades' horses, they are then entitled to a proportion from those who employ them; and, in this case, the booty is divided into three parts. The captor takes one as his right, another he bestows upon the person who held his horse, and the third, which is called ' peer bhata,' (peculiar allowance,) he keeps for his trouble in getting it. In the event of an ogirra' (stranger) acquiring a large booty, the thokdar will often seize the whole of it, unless he has been satisfied by a douceur beforehand. Quarrels continually occur relative to the distribution of the plunder among those who take it; these are always referred to the lubbreea for adjustment, and a small tax on each forms his chief source of emolument. He assembles a sort of council which settles the affair immediately, and the propriety of its decisions is rarely questioned. When it happens, as it sometimes does, that the lubbreea himself enters a village to encourage his people, if he sees a party engaged in robbing a rich individual, he claims a share of what they may obtain. This is occasionally refused, but more frequently granted, though more from personal regard than as an acknowledged right.

This is the mode of arranging disputes arising out of the division of plunder. The more inveterate feuds which prevail among them, as well as among all other Moslem tribes, are not heard of during an expedition. When once assembled, previously to setting out, all former quarrels are left in abeyance, and the utmost cordiality takes place. The thirst of private revenge is sacrificed to the common cause, or its pursuit postponed until the Dussera or Mohurrum may afford an opportunity of gratifying it with impunity.

From the circumstances we have stated, it will appear that even while we write new and famous leaders may have sprung up among


the Pindarries; but a brief sketch of those most distinguished, and the era when their extirpation was determined upon by the Indian government, cannot fail to be interesting.

The lubbreeas of the parties which invaded the Deccan and the Northern Circars, are Buksoo, Bhattia, Bheeka, Syed, and Bajee Narsia ka Rumzans. The chief of the Holkar branch of the Pindarries is named Kawder Buksh; those of inferior note Tookoo and Sahib Khan. Their united strength may be computed at nearly five thousand horse, which are generally cantoned in the vicinity of Kunool and Shundra. Kurreem Khan, Cheetoo, (or Seetoo, as he is often called,) and Dost Mohummud, are also principal and powerful chiefs, and most of the subordinate heads of dhurrahs or tribes pay a sort of tacit acknowledgment to their superiority.

Of the recently more active invaders, Buksoo, otherwise Hoosain Buksh, is the most eminent character among the lubbreeas of the present day, and is accounted a man of the greatest sagacity and skill, excelling all his contemporaries in the conduct of a toll.' He is represented as a tall, fair, handsome person, of an athletic form, and about thirty-five years of age. Though brave and enterprizing, he is cautious in the extreme, and never risks an action when he can carry his point by other means. In difficulty and danger his chief resource is the consummate art with which he eludes his pursuers; and his prudence and cunning have been manifested in some extraordinary retreats. Constantly on horseback from his earliest years, he is enured to every hardship and fatigue; neither elevated by success, nor depressed by defeat, his courage and presence of mind never fail him, and he sets an example of perseverance and fortitude in the most toilsome marches and inminent perils. He is also master of the great art of conciliating all around him, whom he attaches to his person by affability and kindness, as was evinced by the conduct of his followers on the march from the Nerbuddah. So strongly did they feel their dependence upon him, and so sensible were they of the magnitude of the loss they should sustain if any accident happened to him, that even in their most urgent distress, when in want of a meal themselves, they would always procure something for the lubbreea. Such is his reputation, that the best and bravest of the Pindarry sirdars followed him in this last excursion, confident of success under his auspices; and the very 'toll' which accompanied him was not his own, but belonged to Cadir Nabob, who, notwithstanding his rank and title, was content to serve under him in the field. Bhattia and Bheeka' Syed also accompanied Buksoo in his expedition to Guntoor; but he was the nominal head of the confederacy. They remained united until they crossed the Kistnah: Bleeka' Syed sepa


rated from the horde after the plunder of Guntoor, but in his retreat pursued nearly the same route as the other two, when, in crossing the Ajunta ghauts, he was overtaken by the Mysore cavalry, who captured some men and horses, and killed several of his followers. He is, nevertheless, noted as a gallant and resolute leader, whose courage is equal to any exploit.


Buksoo continued his retreat from Guntoor, accompanied by Bhattia, till he arrived in the neighbourhood of Colonel Doveton's camp-here he accidentally lost his party during the night, and sounded his trumpet for them to join him; Bhattia's trumpet was also blown at the same instant, and the Pindarries were thereby divided into two tolls,' which took different routes. Bhattia was attacked by Lieutenant Reid of the 20th, in descending the ghauts, and sustained some loss in making his escape; while Buksoo, either more wary or more fortunate, passed unseen between the detachments intended to intercept him. It has been calculated that each man in his 'toll' carried off between fifteen hundred and two thousand rupees; and by his success in this undertaking, he not only acquired himself very considerable property, but added greatly to his fame as a partizan. Emboldened by prosperity, he now declared that he would render himself memorable as a lubbreea, and visit countries where the name of a Pindarry had never been heard! He accordingly prepared to ravage the British territory to the south of the Toombuddra, and to enter the Kokeen. But obtaining information of the numerous detachments on the banks of the river, and of the natural difficulties of the country, he was obliged to forego his original design; and, after making a few marches up the north bank of the Kistnah, turned towards the north by Punderpoor. On his arrival near Barenda, he learnt the dispersion of Bhattia's 'toll'; the spirits of his men were much depressed by this news, as they apprehended the same disaster might attend them if they ventured too close to the vicinity of Jeroor, or Ahmednuggur, which Buksoo had proposed. They became loud in their demands to be led homewards; but the 'lubbur' having gathered but little booty in proportion to the others, he wished to afford them an opportunity of procuring more, and therefore took an easterly direction, leisurely plundering the country from Tooljapoor to Nooldroog, where he was surprized by the detachment sent after him under Major Macdowall. The least important effect of that night's surprize was the complete disarming and dispersion of a body of banditti, who had been the scourge of the whole country. On this occasion, Buksoo suffered the greatest disgrace that could befall a lubbreea, by losing his two horses: his standard, his trumpets, and his matchlock were likewise taken, and he himself, not without difficulty, escaped from the field on foot.



The chief thokdars in Buksoo's party are Cadir Nabob, whom we have already mentioned, Kolee Raomeeka Bhukna, (father-inlaw to the nabob,) Mahomudee, Buhadoor, Byram Khan Kala Bhukna, (called also Mawria,) and Bhuka Loda, (a Hindoo,) from Cheetoo's army. Tookoo Dhakera Boocha Kyratee and Shaik Chund came from Kureem Khan. Cadir Nabob is, or was a person of considerable rank, and related to or connected with Cheetoo. The prisoners affirmed that he received a ball through the body on the night of the attack, which killed him on the spot; Kolee Raomeeka Bhukna is also reported to have had his arms broken. Indeed, this was a fatal affair for the Pindarries, as Mahomudee, the first who raised the standard and proposed the expedition, was among the missing, and is supposed to have been slain on the field. Bhuka Loda is said to have been shot in the right shoulder, the ball passing through his body and coming out behind the left, in which deplorable condition he was borne off by two others on horseback. Buhadoor is a brave enterprizing buzzack, (leader of a division,) and was the individual who discovered the defenceless state of Khanapoor, and brought the toll' to sack it. Byram Khan is a bold and courageous soldier; he covered the retreat of the 'toll' with about forty men, when pursued by the Mysore horse, and by the bravery and skill which he exhibited in this emergency, enabled the wounded and dismounted to get out of danger. Tookoo Dhakera separated from Buksoo with about two hundred men, to the north of Beder, to plunder the districts near Oodgeer and Maligam, and he is supposed to have proceeded to the sea coast near Bombay: he is acknowledged to be inferior to none in courage and conduct. Bajee Narsia ka Rumzans is the chief who undertook to plunder Jugernauth, and entered the Ganjam district for that purpose; little more is known of him than the losses he sustained in that attempt.

As we have thus presented our readers with a distinct view of these characters, whose very names seem as new as they are harsh to British ears, though they have been the cause of no small trouble and consternation in India; we shall very briefly sum up the notice of the greater chiefs whom we have mentioned. Kureem Khan is descended from an ancient Mahommedan family; his early youth was spent in the service of Holkar, which he subsequently quitted for that of Dowlut Row Scindiah. His fame and enterprizing spirit soon increased the number of his adherents; he enlarged his territories, partly by grants from Scindiah, and partly by usurpations from the Rajah of Berar and Nabob of Bopaul, whose dominions he alternately invaded and ravaged. He possessed himself of several fortresses, and, at the end of the Mahratta war, his power was such as to excite the fears and jealousy of Scindiah, who caused

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