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of) the eagle. I encouraged my hopes with the sight of a king who, for me, would replace mankind, of a palace which, for me, would be the world, and of a day of meeting which, to me, would be worth an eternity (1).

Such verses, I must say, do really deserve the name of lawful magic. The 583 idea here expressed has been wrought up by Abû Bakr Ahmad al-Arrâjani (vol. I. p. 134) into this form :

Know that he whom I went to praise is a man without defects. How often, at eve, has the recital of his virtues been suspended, like handsome ear-rings, to the ears of listeners. I saw him, and, for me, he was the human race; eternity was in that hour, and the world in that abode.

But how far above the earth are the Pleiads! al-Mutanabbi has expressed the very same idea in the last hemistich of a single verse; he says :

(Thy dwelling-place) is the sole object of my journey; a sight of thee is all I wish for ; thy dwelling is the world, and thou art all created beings.


He has not, indeed, completed the thought, neither has his verse the beauty of as-Salåmi's, because he omitted the day worth an eternity. Let us return to Adud ad-Dawlat: this prince once received a letter from Abû Mansûr Iftikin the Turk, governor of Damascus, containing the following communication : “ Syria is free (from the presence of foreign troops), it is now within our grasp, and “ the rule of the monarch of Egypt has ceased therein; aid me therefore with

money and soldiers, so that I may attack those people even in the seat of their

power.” To this, he replied by a note of which (every two words) were similar in their written form, so that it could not be read until the vowels and diacritical points were added; it ran thus : “Thy power has misled thee, and the result of “ that undertaking would be thy disgrace; fear therefore the dishonour which

may attend it. By this, perhaps, thou mayest be guided.” In the composi tion of this letter he has displayed the utmost ingenuity. Iftikin was originally a mawla to Moizz ad Dawlat Ibn Buwaih, and afterwards obtained dominion over Damascus: he marched in person against al-Aziz al-Obaidi, the sovereign of Egypt, and a sanguinary conflict ensued; the troops of Iftikin were routed, and he himself was intercepted in his flight by Daghfal Ibn al-Jarrâh al-Badawi (2) who passed a rope about his neck and led him to al-Aziz. That prince set him

at liberty and treated him with great kindness. Iftikin survived his defeat but a short time, and died (in Egypt) on Tuesday, the 7th of Rajab, A. H. 372 (December, A. D. 982).—Adud ad-Dawlat left some pieces of poetry, and the following passage is quoted from one of his kasîdas by ath-Thaàlibi, in the Yatima; this writer says: “I selected it from that kasida which contains an unequalled

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• We drink not wine unless the rain (keep us at home); and in the morning only, we • hearken to the song of the maidens, perfect in beauty, stealing away the reason whilst * they sing (3) to the double-corded lyre; they bring forth the goblet from its shrine, and pour out the liquor to him who surpasses all mankind-the arm of the empire (Adud ad-Daulat) the son of its pillar (Rukn ad-Dawlat), the king of kings, the vanquisher of fate.'



It is related that when Adud ad-Dawlat was on the point of death, the only words which he could pronounce were the following, and these he did not speak, but chant: “Nought has availed my wealth! my power has expired!" It is said that he died very soon after. He was carried off by an epileptic attack on Monday, the 8th of Shawwal, A. H. 372 (March, A. D. 983) at Baghdad, and his body was interred in the palace, till removed to Kufa, where it was deposited in the Mash’had of Ali Ibn Abi Tålib. Adud ad-Dawlat died at the age of forty-seven years, eleven months and three days. The Adudian Hospital (al-Bimáristan al

Adudi) situated on the west side of the river Tigris) was so called after him: he 584 spent an immense sum on this establishment which, for excellent arrange

ments, has not its equal in the world. He completed its erection in the year 368 (A. D. 978) and provided it with more furniture and utensils than could possibly be described. It was he who brought to light the tomb of Ali Ibn Abi Talib, at Kûfa, and erected over it the Mash'had, or funeral chapel, which is still subsisting. He spent a large sum on this building, and left directions that he should be buried in it. A great difference of opinion prevails respecting the tomb (discovered by Adud ad-Dawlat); some consider it to be the tomb of al-Moghaira Ibn Shôba ath-Thakafi (4), and pretend that the place of Ali's tomb is not known ; but the truth, I am inclined to believe, is, that Ali was buried in the government palace (Kasr al-Imâra) at Kûfa.—Shib Bawwân (the valley of Bawwàn) is a spot near Shîrâz, abounding in trees and water. so called after Bawwàn, the son of Irân, the son of al-Aswad, the son of Sem,

It was

the son of Noah. Abû Bakr al-Khowârezmi states that there are four delightful spots in the world : the Ghůta of Damascus, the river al-Obolla (5), the valley of Bawwân, and the Soghd of Samarkand, but the Ghůta of Damascus, says he, surpasses the others.

.ناغمات but I read ,ناعمات The MSs. and the printed text have (3)

(1) In vol. I. p. 14, this verse has been mistranslated.
(2) See Abulfedæ Annales, tom. II. p 521 et seq.
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(4) Aba Isa (or Abû Muhammad) al-Moghaira Ibn Shoba Ibn Aamir, well known as one of Muhammad's companions, bore so high a reputation for sagacity that he was surnamed Moghaira tar-Rai (Moghaira of foresight). He contracted, it is said, seventy marriages ; a number which his readiness in divorcing his wives easily accounts for. He died A. H. 50 (A D. 670-1).-(Nujam.) The Khatib says, in his abridged history of Baghdad (MS. No. 634, fol. 9), that al-Moghaira accompanied Muhammad to al-Hudaibiya (A.H. 6) and was with him in the rest of his expeditions; he made the campaigns of Iråk against the Persians, and then governed Basra, as the khalif Omar's lieutenant, for about two years. Moawia entrusted him with the government of Küfa in A. H. 41 (al-Bahr az-Zakhir, MS. No. 659 A), and he died in that city.

5) The Nahr, or river of al-Obolla, was the name given to a canal branching off the Tigris and falling into the canal of al-Makil near Basra.


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The genealogy of Abû Muhammad al-Kasim Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr is so well known that we need not retrace it here (1). He was one of the most eminent of the Tabis, and of the seven great jurisconsults of Medina (vol. I. 26'). In real merit he surpassed all his contemporaries. He handed down Traditions from a great number of Muhammad's companions, and Traditions were received from him and taught to others by many of the principal Tâbis. "I never met

any one,” said Yahya Ibn Said (2), “ whom I could pronounce superior in “ merit to al Kasim Ibn Muhammad.” (The imam) Màlik pronounced al-Kasim one of the great) jurisconsults of the Moslim people. The following anecdote is related by Muhammad Ibn Ishak (3): “A man went to al-Kasim and asked him " whether he or Sâlim (vol. I. p. 552) was the most learned in the law; and " he replied : “Such, with the blessing of God, is Salim.' He made this reply “ to avoid telling a falsehood by saying that Sâlim was more learned than him


self, and to avoid extolling his own merits by declaring himself more learned “than Sâlim; and yet he was really the more learned of the two." In making his prostrations during prayer, he used to implore God to pardon his father's criminal conduct towards Othmân (4). We have stated in the life of Ali Zain al-Aầbidin (vol. II. p. 210) that he, al-Kâsim and Sålim Ibn Muhammad were cousins by the mothers' side, and that their mothers were daughters to Yazdegird, the last of the Persian kings. Al-Kasim died at Kudaid, A. H. 101 (A. D. 719-20) or 102; others say A. H. 108 or 112. On his death-bed he said : ". Shroud me in the clothes which I always wore at prayers; my shirt, my izár, “ and my rida (5).” To this his daughter replied : “My dear father, shall “ we not add two suits more?” and he answered: “Abû Bakr was thus “ shrouded, but the living have more need for new clothes than the dead (6)." He died at the age of seventy or seventy-two years.— Kudaid is a halting place for caravans between Mekka and Medina.

(1) See page 98, note (1), of this volume.

(2) Abù Said Yahya Ibn Said Ibn Kais, a member of the tribe of Najjår, a native of Medina and one of the Tabis, received Traditions from Anas Ibn Malik, amongst others, and taught them to Malik, al-Laith Ibn Saad, and other celebrated imâms. Abů Jaafar al-Mansdr appointed him kadi of al-Hashimiya in Irak, and he died there A.H. 143 (A. D. 760-1).-(Tab. al-Muhaddithin. Siar as-Salaf.)

(3) His life is given by Ibn Khallikån.
(4) Muhammad the son of Abd Bakr was accessory to the murder of Othmân. See Abu 'l-Fedå’s Annals,

year 35.

(5) See vol. I. page 4, note (4).

(6) These were Abu Bakr's words when a similar question was made to him. He asked to be buried in his old clothes. See Kosegarten's Taberistanensis Annales, tom. II. p. 141


Sallâm, the father of Abû Obaid al-Kasim Ibn Sallâm, was a Greek slave be585 longing to an inhabitant of Herât. His son Abû Obaid made the Traditions, phi

lology, and jurisprudence the objects of his studies, and was distinguished for piety, virtuous conduct, orthodox principles and eminent talent. “Abû Obaid," said

poems and

the kâdi Ahmad Ibn Kàmil (1)“ was conspicuous for piety and learning, a doctor “ versed in the various branches of Islamic science, such as the Koran readings, “ jurisprudence, grammar, and history, and a correct transmitter of “ narrations preserved by oral tradition. Never, to my knowledge, has any

person impeached the sincerity of his faith.”—“Abů Obaid," said Ibrahim alHarbi (vol. I. p. 46), “ was like a mountain into which the breath of life had “ been breathed, so that it produced every thing well.” He exercised the functions of kâdi in the city of Tarasûs (Tarsus) during eighteen years. The traditional knowledge which he handed down was received by him from Abů Zaid al-Ansari (v. I. p. 570), al-Asmâi (v. II. p. 123), Abû Obaida, Ibn al-Aarabi (2 , al-Kisâi (v. II. p. 237), al-Farrâ (3), and many others. Of his own productions (kutub musannafa) upwards of twenty, relating to the Korân, the Traditions and the obscure expressions occurring in the Traditions, were delivered down orally. He composed works entitled : al-Gharib al-Musannaf (original collection of rare expressions); al-Amthål (proverbs) ; Maâni as-Shir (the ideas recurring in poetry), and a number of other instructive treatises : it is said that he was the first who composed a book on the obscure expressions occurring in the Traditions (Gharib al-Hadith). He attached himself, for some time, to Abd Allah Ibn Tahir (v. II. p. 49), and, when he wrote out his Ghârib, he presented it to this emir (4), who expressed his satisfaction and said : “A mind which led its master to com

pose a book like this deserves to be dispensed from the necessity of searching 66 for him the means of subsistence.” He then settled on him a monthly pension of ten thousand dirhems (5). Muhammad Ibn Wahb al-Masudi (6) said: “I heard Abû Obaid relate as follows: I was forty years composing this “work, and whenever I happened to receive a useful hint from the mouths of “men, I wrote it down in its proper place in this book, and I was unable to " • sleep that night, through joy at having procured such a piece of information. “Now, one of you (scholars) will come to me for four or five months, and then “ • say : I have remained here very long.'”.

?”—“ Almighty God,” said Hilâl Ibn al-Alà ar-Rakki (7), “ bestowed, out of his bounty, four men on this (Moslim

people at different times : he gave them as-Shâli, who founded a system of ju

risprudence on the Traditions; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (vol. I. p. 44), who showed “ such firmness under persecution that, without his example, the people had relapsed into infidelity; Yahya Ibn Main (8 , who, from among the genuine Tra


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