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(1) This word is written sy in Persian.
(8) The following passage from the Two Gardens (see vol. II. page 190, notel 6) ) may serve to elucidate these events : “ The katib Imád ad-din says: The sultan (Salah ad-din) then wrote (to the princes of Meso“ potamia), requiring them to come and make alliance with him. All those who obeyed were allowed to
preserve their estates, on the condition of serving in the sultan's army and following him in his warfare " against the infidels. Når ad-din Muhammad Ibn Kara Arslån, lord of Hisn Kaifa, sent in his submission with "an ambassador, and the sultan then departed from al-Bira and came to a halt under the walls of Edessa. “Fakhr ad-din Masad Ibn az-Zafarâni who was then in the city, made his submission, and it was bestowed on “ Muzaffar ad-din in addition to Harrån. The sultan then proceeded to Harràn and from thence to ar
Rakka, which was then held by the emir Kutb ad-din Inål Ibn Hassan, who also made his submission."(MS. No. 707 A, fol. 167 verso.)
(6) See vol. ). page 278. Al-Ghaur is the name given to the valley of the Jordan. (7) See M. Reinaud's Extraits d'auteurs arabes relatifs aux Croisades, page 194.
(8) The fifth form of the verb lig is here employed by Ibn Khallikân with the signification of to bring. A similar signification is given by Ibn Batâta to the eighth form. In the account of his voyage to Sadân, he says ”
(9) The word sabil (way) is often employed to signify a fountain for the use of wayfaring men (sahib as-sabil). It is here employed to signify a convoy of provisions (10) See vol.
page 894, note (8). (11) Insert in the Arabic text
(12) The text varies here in the Mss. I take the true reading to be žlüls' l äelüli from “ the citadel (and carried) to the convent...”
(13) Gük in Turkish means sky-blue, and búri may perhaps mean wolf in some ancient dialect of that language.
(14) Lina is placed by Berghauss on his map of Arabia in lat. 30° 5', long. 42° 51' E. from Paris.
".she brought us food ،، كانت تفتقدنا بالطعام : Rays
AL-LAITH IBN SAAD.
Abû 'l-Harith al-Laith Ibn Saad Ibn Abd ar-Rahmân, the great imam of the people of Egypt in the sciences of jurisprudence and the Traditions, drew his origin from an Ispahan family, and was a mawla to Kais Ibn Rifàa, who himself was a mawla to Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Khalid Ibn Musafir alFahmi. The credibility and exactitude of al-Laith Ibn Said as a Tradi
tionist were of the highest order, nor was he less distinguished for his noble character and liberality. “I had written down,” said he, “a great quantity of “the (legal) information communicated) by Muhammad Ibn Shihab az-Zuhri (o
(to his disciples), and I then asked to obtain the use of the post-horses, so that “I might go and see him at ar-Rusâfa (2); but being then apprehensive that, “ in taking such an easy mode of conveyance), I should not be acting in the sole “ view of God's favour, I abandoned my project.” As-Shâfi said of him : “Al“ Laith Ibn Saad is a more learned jurisconsult than Målik, only his disciples “ do not exalt him sufficiently.” (Some students were one day) reading, under the tuition of Ibn Wahb (vol. II. p. 15), the collection of legal questions which had been decided by al-Laith, when a person who was not a native of the place exclaimed, on hearing one of these questions read (with its solution): “Cleverly “done for al-Laith! one would think he had heard Malik, and then repeated "" his words.” On this, Ibn Wahb said to him : “ Say rather that Mâlik heard “al-Laith answer, and then repeated his words; I swear by the only true God, “ that we never saw a more learned jurisconsult than al-Laith !” This imâm was noted for his generosity and liberality; he enjoyed a yearly income of five thousand pieces of gold (dinars), and this sum he distributed in gifts and other ways. “ I went to see al-Laith,” said Mansûr Ibn Ammar (3), “and he gave “ me one thousand dinars, saying: · Let this help to preserve the wisdom with 666 which God has endowed thee.'
in a certain compilation, that al-Laith held the principles of the Hanifite sect, and that he exercised the functions of kâdi in Old Cairo. I found stated, in the same work, that Mâlik having sent to him a china cup filled with dates, he returned it filled with gold. He used to have almond-cake made for his disciples, and in it he inserted pieces of
gold, so that he who eat most cake might get most money. In the year 113 614 (A. D. 731-2), being then twenty years of age, he made the pilgrimage, and
heard the Traditions delivered by Nafi (4), the mawla of Ibn Omar. He said that, according to what he had been told by his family, he was born A. H. 92 (A. D. 710-1), but it has been positively ascertained that the real date is A. H. 94, in the month of Shaabân. He died at Old Cairo on Thursday (some say Friday), the 15th of Shaabân, A. H. 175 (December, A. D. 791), and was interred the next day in the Lesser Karafa cemetery, where his tomb still continues to be frequented by pious visitors. As-Samâni places his birth in the month of
Shaabân, A. H. 124, and another writer, in A. H. 93; but our former statement appears to be the most correct. One of his disciples related as follows: “When
we had buried al-Laith Ibn Saad, we heard a voice say:
“ Al-Laith is departed, and you possess him no longer ! soon also shall learning de“part and be interred !
“On hearing these words we turned round, but could see no one."— It is said that he belonged to Kalkashanda, a village about three parasangs to the north of Cairo.-- Fahmi means belonging to the tribe of Fahm, a branch of that descended from Kais (son of) Ghailân. It has produced many eminent individuals.
(1) The life of az-Zuhri is given in this work. (2) See vol. I. page 299, note (8).
(3) Abû 's-Sari Mansur Ibn Ammar Ibn Kathir, a native of Khorasân, or of Basra, as some say, was celebrated for bis wisdom, his piety, the elegance of his language, and his unction as a preacher. Having gone to Iråk, he delivered Traditions there, and afterwards passed into Egypt, where he pronounced moral discourses and exhortations. Al-Laith Ibn Saad, having heard of his proceedings, sent for him, and asked him how he presumed to hold discourses in the city without being authorised by the doctors of the law. He replied that zeal for religion was his only motive, and that, if al-Laith permitted him, he would make a discourse in his presence, promising that, if he then forbid him to preach, he should obey him. Al-Laith agreed to the proposal, and having heard from him a sermon which brought tears to his eyes, he made him a present of one thousand dinars, saying: “Go forth and preach to the people.” During his residence in Old Cairo, the house and purse of al-Laith were at his disposal, and, on his departure for Baghdad, the sons of that imam made him another present of one thousand dinars. He died, A. H. 228 (A.D. 839-40). — (Mirat az-Zaman, MS. No. 640, fol.115. Nujum.)
(4) His life will be found in this work.
THE IMAM MALIK.
Abû Abd Allah Mâlik Ibn Anas Ibn Mâlik Ibn Abi Aamir Ibn Amr Ibn alHarith Ibn Ghaimân Ibn Jathil Ibn Amr Ibn Zi Asbah al-Hârith al-Asbahi, a native of Medina and the great imâm of that city (Imâm dår il-Hijra), was one of the most eminent among the imâms of Islamism. In his genealogy as here set forth,
some substitute Othmân for Ghaimán, and, in place of Jathil, (Muhammad) Ibn Saad (al-Wakidi) writes Khuthail. Malik learned to read the Koran under the tuition of Nåfi Ibn Abi Noaim; he heard Traditions delivered by (Ibn Shihab) az-Zuhri and Nåfi, the mawla of Ibn Omar (1); he taught Traditions on the authority of alAuzâi (vol. II. p. 84) and Yahya Ibn Said (2), and he acquired his knowledge of the law from Rabia ar-Rài (vol. I. p. 517), with whom he acted as mufti, or consulting lawyer, to the government.
“There were very few men,” said Målik, “ from whom I received lessons, who did not come to me before they died, to “ ask my opinion on some point of law.” And Ibn Wahb (vol. II. p. 15) relates that he heard these words proclaimed by a public crier in Medina : “Let no
person act as mufti to the people except Målik Ibn Anas and Ibn Abi Zib (3).” When Mâlik felt inclined to deliver Traditions, he made an ablution, then seated himself in the middle of his mattress, and, spreading out his beard, he assumed a grave and dignified deportment, after which preparations he commenced. When asked his motives for so doing, he replied : “ I delight in testifying my
profound respect for the sayings of the Apostle of God, and I never repeat “one unless I feel myself in a state of perfect purity.” He avoided delivering Traditions when travelling, or standing, or when pressed for time: “ for I like,” said he, “ to feel the meaning of the Apostle's words when I repeat them to “ others.” He never went about on horseback in Medina, even when much enfeebled and advanced in years : No,” he would say, “I shall never ride in “ the city wherein the corpse of God's Apostle lies interred.” As-Shâfi relates
as follows: Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan (4) said to me : “ Which of the two is the 615“ more learned ; our master or yours ?” meaning Abû Hanifa and Mâlik. “Dost
“ thou wish,” said I, “ that I should answer with impartiality ?” He replied that he did, and I said : “ I then ask thee before God, which of the two is the “ more learned in the Koran; our master or yours?"_“Yours, to a certainty,” said he. “ I again ask thee seriously,” said I, “which of the two is the more “ learned in the Sunna; our master or yours ?” _“Yours, to a certainty,” he replied. “I shall again ask thee,” said I, “which of the two is the best ac
quainted with the sayings (sentences forming legal decisions) pronounced by the companions of God's Apostle ; our master or yours.”—“Why, yours, to a
certainty," was the answer. Then,” said I, “ there only remain the analo“gical deductions (kiâs) (5); and if they be not drawn from the three sources we
" have just mentioned, from whence can they be drawn?” - Al-Wakidi says : “ Màlik used to go regularly to the mosque and attend the daily prayers, and " the prayer of Friday, and the funerals, and visit the sick, and fulfil all the “ duties (of social life) and take his seat in the mosque, with his disciples col“ lected round him; he then discontinued sitting in the mosque, but attended “the prayers, after which he would return to his seat and teach ; he ceased also “ accompanying funerals, but still continued to go and condole with the family “ of the deceased; but, at a later period, he gave up all those customs, neither
going to the mosque for daily prayers nor for the prayer of Friday, nor making
any visits of condolence, nor fulfilling any of the social duties; yet the people “bore this patiently, and he continued, till his death, in the same practice. “ He was sometimes questioned on his motives for so doing, and he used to “ reply: 'It is not given to every man to speak out his own excuses.' Some persons went secretly to Jaafar Ibn Sulaiman Ibn Ali Ibn Abd Allah Ibn alAbbâs, the uncle of Abû Jaafar al-Mansûr, and accused him of declaring that he did not consider the oath of allegiance to the Abbasides as binding. Jaafar was so highly incensed on hearing this, that be caused Mâlik to be brought before him, and having ordered him to be stripped, he inflicted on him a severe flogging, and caused his arm to be drawn out to such a degree that it was dislocated at the shoulder; in fact, he treated him in a most scandalous manner. But, from the time Mâlik received this flogging, he rose higher and higher in public estimation, so that the punishment he underwent seemed as if it had been an honour conferred upon him. In Ibn al-Jauzi's Shuzûr al-Okud 6), under the year 147, we find the following passage: “In this year, Mâlik Ibn Anas received
seventy stripes of a whip, on account of some legal opinions which did not cor
respond with the wishes of the sultans the persons invested with the civil power).” This may probably refer to the same occurrence which we have just noticed. Màlik was born A. H. 95 (A.D. 713-4), three years after conception (7), and he died in the month of the first Rabi, A. H. 179 (May-June, A. D. 795), aged eighty-four years. Al-Wakidi (8) says that he died at the age of ninety, and Ibn al-Furât (9) has the following passage in his historical work drawn up in the form of annals : “Malik Ibn Anas al-Asbahi died on the 10th of the first Rabi, A. H. 179.” Others place his death in the year 178, and some state that his birth occurred in the year 90. As-Samâni says in his Ansâb (or dictionary of patronymics),