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at-Tabari (v. I. p. 644) elucidated its obscurities in one large volume, and the shaikh Abu Ali as-Sinji (vol. I. p. 419) drew up a complete commentary on it, wherein he fully discusses every point. This last is one of the best productions of the kind. Ibn al-Haddad learned jurisprudence from Abû Ishak al-Marwazi (vol. I. p. 7). My master Imâd ad-din Ibn Båtish (vol. I. p. 187) states, in the work composed by him on (Abû Ishak's) Muhaddab, and in his Tabakât al-Fokahâ, or classified list of jurisconsults, that Ibn al-Haddad was one of the most distinguished disciples of Abû Ibrahim al-Muzani (v. I. p. 200), but this is an oversight on his part, for Ibn al-Haddad was born the year al-Muzani died. Nay, alKudai (1) mentions, in his Khitat, that his birth took place on the day of alMuzani's death. How then could he possibly have been his disciple? I notice this error here lest persons should be led to think al-Kudài mistaken, and Ibn Batish in the right. The latter also attributes to Ibn al-Haddad the verses rhyming in z, which I have quoted in the life of Zàfir al-Haddad, native of Alexandria (2). Ibn al-Haddad was a doctor of great exactness in the examination of points of law, and singularly skilful in obtaining clear results from the depths of obscurity in which they lay concealed (3). He occupied the posts of kadi and professor at Old Cairo; the princes and the people held him in the highest respect, and it was to his opinion they deferred when doubts arose on a point of law, or when any grave event took place. People used to say: "It "would be the strangest circumstance that ever occurred to find an executioner angry (from having nothing to do), or to meet with a heap of dung free from impurities, or to see an opinion of Ibn al-Haddad's refuted (4).” His birth took place on the 24th of Ramadàn, A. H. 264 (May, A. D. 878), and he died A. H. 345 (A. D. 956-7), or 344 according to as-Samâni. He delivered Traditions on the authority of Abu Abd ar-Rahman an-Nasài (vol. I. p. 58) and other masters. Al-Kudài states, in his Khitat, that Ibn al-Haddad expired on his return from the pilgrimage, A. H. 344, at a place called Munya Harb, near the gate of Old Cairo; on the spot, it is said, where Cairo now stands. He was versed in a great variety of sciences, such as those connected with the Koran, jurisprudence, the Traditions, poetry, the combats of the ancient Arabs, grammar, philology, etc. During his life he remained without a rival, and was beloved by all persons, from the highest to the lowest. The emir Abû 'l-Kàsim Anûjûr Ibn al-Ikhshid attended his funeral, in company with Kâfùr vol. II. p. 524) and followed by
a crowd of the inhabitants. He lived to the age of seventy-nine years, four months, and two days.— Haddâd means a worker in iron, or one who sells it.
(1) His life will be found in this volume.
(2) See vol. I. p. 668, the lines beginning thus: "Had he taken refuge in an exemplary patience."
(4) In the original Arabic, this saying consists of three short sentences, rhyming together.
ABU BAKR AS-SAIRAFI.
Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Abd Allah, generally known by the name of Sairafi, was a native of Baghdad and a doctor of the sect of as-Shâfi. He ranked among the (regular) jurisconsults (of that city). Having studied the law under Abû 'lAbbas Ibn Suraij (vol. I. p. 46), he acquired distinction by his acuteness in the discussion (of points of law not hitherto settled), by his skill in the use of analogical deduction, and by his penetration as a dogmatic theologian. He composed a work of quite an original cast on the fundamentals of jurisprudence; and Abù Bakr al-Kaffal (see next article) states, in his work on that subject, that Abu Bakr as-Sairafi was, next to as-Shâfi, the most learned of men in that branch of sciHe was the first person of our sect (the Shafite) who undertook to compose a treatise on the drawing up of bonds (1), and the work which he produced on this subject is of the highest excellence. He died on Thursday, the 21st of the latter Rabî, A. H. 330 (January, A. D. 942). The signification of Sairafi is well known; it means one who changes gold and silver coin. I mention this here, because many persons mispronounce his surname and say Sirafi.
(1) In Arabic: Ilm as-Shurût. See vol. I. p. 33, note (5).
ABU BAKR AL-KAFFAL AS-SHASHI.
Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Ismail al-Kaffàl (1) as-Shâshi, a doctor of the Shafite sect, was incontrovertibly the ablest jurisconsult (imâm) of that age, and possessed not only a deep knowledge of the law and the Traditions, but was also versed in dogmatic theology, and proved himself a learned philologer and a good poet. The Shafites did not possess in Transoxiana a man to be compared to him. (In the furtherance of his studies) he travelled to Khorâsàn, Iråk, al-Hijâz, Syria, and the northern frontier of Mesopotamia, and his reputation spread far and wide. He learned jurisprudence from Ibn Suraij (vol. I. p. 46), and composed a great number of works. He was the first who drew up a treatise on the approved method of dialectics (jadal) employed by the jurisconsults among themselves (2). He composed also a treatise on the principles of canonic jurisprudence, and a commentary on the Risala (3). It was he who propagated the Shafite doctrines in Transoxiana. He taught Traditions on the authority of Ibn Jarir at-Tabari (vol. II. p. 597) and other eminent doctors of that age, and Traditions were delivered on his own authority by the Hâkim Abù Abd Allah Ibn al-Baîi (4), Abû Abd Allah Ibn Manda (5), Abû Abd ar-Rahmàn as-Sulami (6), and many others. He was the father of al-Kâsim, the author of the work cited, under the title of at-Takrib (simplification of the Shafite doctrines,, in the Nihaya and the Basit (7). Al-Ghazzâli mentions him in the second chapter of the section on pledges and mortgages, but calls him Abù 'l-Kâsim, wherein he is mistaken. Al-Ijli (vol. I. p. 191) states, in his Explanation of the Obscurities met with in the Wajiz and Wasit, in the second chapter of the section on purification with sand, that the author of the Takrib was Abu Bakr al-Kaffàl, and that some attribute the work to his son al-Kâsim. He then adds: "And for "this reason it is that, in citing him, they designate him by the vague appella❝tion of the author of the Takrib." I shall here add that, in the month of Shawwâl, A. H. 665 (July, A. D. 1267), I saw in the library of the Addiliya college (at Damascus) a copy of the Takrib in ten volumes, but bound in six, and bearing an inscription indicating the author to be Abû 'l-Hasan al-Kasim Ibn Abi Bakr al-Kaffàl as-Shâshi; and this copy was in the handwriting of the shaikh Kutb ad
din Masud an-Naisàpûri, a doctor whose life will be found further on. It bore also a note written by Kutb ad-din, declaring that he had made a wakf of it (8). This is a different work from that of as-Sulaim ar-Râzi (vol. I. p. 584) bearing the same title, yet I have met a great number of jurisconsults who supposed it to be the same. This induces me to draw the reader's attention to the circumstance. Copies of al-Kaffàl's Takrib are scarce, but those of ar-Râzi's are in every person's hands, and it is by the work of the latter that the jurisconsults of Khorasan finish their studies. Some difference of opinion subsists respecting the true date of Abu Bakr al-Kaffàl's death; thus the shaikh Abu Ishak as-Shirȧzi states, in his classified list of jurisconsults, that he died A. H. 336 (A.D. 947–8), and the Hakim Ibn al-Baîi says that he breathed his last at as-Shâsh, in the month of Zû 'l-Hijja, A.H. 365 (August, A. D. 976). He then adds: "I wrote "down (pieces of information) under his dictation, and he also did the same under "mine." As-Samâni (v. II. p. 156) makes a similar observation in his Ansâb, and 644 then adds: "He was born in the year 291 (A.D. 903-4)." The same author mentions however, in his Zail, or Supplement, that he died A. H. 366, and he repeats the same statement in his Ansab, under the head of as-Shashi; but the former date is given by him in the life of al-Kaffål himself.—Shashi means belonging to as-Shash; this is a city beyond the Sihùn (9), and has produced a number of learned men. This al-Kaffal is a different person from al-Kaffàl al-Marwazi (see vol. II. p. 26), a doctor who lived at a later epoch.
(1) Al-Kaffal signifies locksmith. See p. 26 of this volume.
(2) For the elucidation of this, see the extract from Ibn Khaldûn, given by M. de Sacy in his ́ Anthologie Arabe, pages 474, 475.
(3) This is the celebrated epistle composed by as-Shafi on his own doctrine.
(4) His life will be found in this volume.
(5) The life of Ibn Manda is given by Ibn Khallikân.
(6) Abu Abd ar-Rahman Muhammad Ibn al-Husain Ibn Musa as-Sulami (member of the tribe of Sulaim) was a native of Naisàpûr and the most eminent Sufi doctor of that age. He travelled to all parts in search of instruction, and collected information from the lips of numerous masters. He composed a commentary on the Koran, a history, and nearly one hundred other works. His death took place in the month of Shaaban, A. H. 412 (Nov.-Dec. A. D. 1021).—(Nujùm. Al-Yâfî.)
(7) These works are by Abû Hamid al-Ghazzâli. Ibn Khallikân gives his life.
(8) See vol. I. p. 49.
(9) The Sihûn or Cirr, the ancient Jaxartes, falls into the lake of Aral.
ABU 'L-HASAN AL-MASARJISI.
Abu 'l-Hasan Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Sahl Ibn Muslih al-Màsarjisi, a Shafite jurisconsult, was one of the great masters of that sect in Khorasan, the best acquainted of them with the doctrines promulgated by its founder, with the regular system which they form, and with the ramifications of those points of controversy to which its main principles give rise. He studied jurisprudence in Khorâsân, Iràk, and Hijâz, and was the assiduous disciple of Abû Ishak alMarwazi (vol. I. p. 7), whom he accompanied to Egypt, and with whom he remained till his death. He then proceeded to Baghdad, where he acted as deputy to Ibn Abi Huraira (vol. I. p. 375) every time that the latter absented himself from his class. In the year 344 (A. D. 955-6) he returned to Khoràsàn, and gave lectures at Naisâpûr, which were attended by the jurisconsults of that city. He taught jurisprudence to the kâdi Abû 'l-Taiyib at-Tabari (vol. I. page 644), and he himself received lessons from his maternal uncle al-Muwammal Ibn al-Hasan Ibn Isa al-Masarjisi. When in Egypt, he collected (legal) information from the disciples of al-Muzani (vol. I. page 200) and from Yunus Ibn Abd al-Alâ as-Sadafi (1). The Hâkim Ibn al-Baii (2) states that, in the month of Rajab, A. H. 381 (September-October, A. D. 991), regular assemblies were held to hear him give dictations in the Dar as-Sunna (college for teaching the Traditions). He died on Wednesday evening, the 5th of the latter Djumàda, A. H. 384 (July, A. D. 994), at the age of seventy-six years, and was interred on the evening of the following day. The shaikh Abû Ishak as-Shîrâzi (vol. I. page 9) says in his Tabakât, that his death occurred in A. H. 383. Mâsarjisi means related to Masarjis; this person was grandfather to Abu Ali al-Hasan Ibn Isa Ibn Mâsarjis an-Naisâpûri, and had been a Christian, but was converted to Islamism by Abd Allah Ibn al-Mubarak (vol. II. p. 12). The doctor Abû 'l-Hasan Muhammad al-Mâsarjisi was son to the daughter of this Abù Ali, and surnamed after him, like all the other members of the family.
(1) His life will be found in this work.
(2) The life of the Hâkim is given by our author.