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§ 93. The simplest form of the subjunctive mood is, were; and in the consequents of conditional sentences the forms are, would, should, would have, should have.

e.g. If it were to fall it would break.

§ 94. Other subjunctive forms may be resolved into these; but verbal compounds not subjunctive will, when resolved, show indicative forms. (§ 57.)

e.g. If you should run you would see him = If you were to run you would see him.

If you might run you might see him = If you were permitted to run, it would be possible for you to see him.

If you could run you would see him = If you were able to run you would see him.


If you would run I should be pleased If you were willing to run I should be pleased.

Although he tried, he could not lift the weight (= = was not able to lift, &c.)

§ 95. In conditional sentences indicative forms are often used.

e.g. If you run you will see him.

If you ran you would see him (= If you were to run, &c.—Indic. for subj.)

If I stand here, I saw him.




Analysis of English Speech-sounds.

§ 96. Letters are signs to represent the sounds made in speaking. When the sign is presented to the eye, the sound with which it is associated is recollected.

It has been determined that, in speaking English, forty distinct sounds are made. Therefore, if we would avoid confusion, we should have forty different characters or letters in our alphabet to represent them.

$97. The forty sounds are thus named: twelve simple vowel-sounds, four diphthongs, one nasal, four liquids, one aspirate, twelve mutes, and six sibilants.

§ 98. The twelve vowel-sounds may be heard in pronouncing—

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(b) The diphthongs are made by uniting two vowelsounds.

e.g. 1 and 11 in fowl, shout; 3 and 7 in boy, foil.

1 and 7 in pine; 7 and 11 in flew, view, beauty.

(c) The nasal may be heard as the closing sound of the word king.

(d) The liquids, so called because they melt or glide into other sounds, may be heard in—

(1) sleep, (2) pump, (3) saint, (4) screw.

(e) The aspirate or breathing is represented by h; as in hall, house.

N.B. It has no sound in heir, hour, honour, and their derivatives.

(f) The twelve mutes, which really do not represent sounds, but certain manners of commencing and cutting off sounds, may be heard as the initial and closing sounds of

1 4


5 6 7 9

8 8 11


pad, bathe, keg, froth, vat, khan, ghost.

There is a remarkable correspondence in the sounds represented by these letters:

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(g) The six sibilants or hissing sounds are heard


son zone, shone azure, chest gesture.

Inefficiency of the English Alphabet. 61


Inefficiency of the English Alphabet.

§ 99. Seeing that the very principle of alphabets is the representation of sounds, the objections so persistently made to phonetic spelling must be considered irrational.

The confusion in English spelling (= representation of sounds) is a disgrace to the language.

§ 100. The following are the causes of this confusion:

(1) Six letters are superfluous :

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c = k or s, j = dzh, q=k, x= = ks, y=i, w (2) Two letters represent compounds, f (= fh), v (= vh).

(3) The same letters are used to represent various sounds.

(4) The same sounds are variously represented; c.7. "the twelve simple vowel-sounds are represented in ninety-six ways."

(5) Letters are used which represent no sounds, which hence are called silent letters.

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N.B.-The principle of this arrangement of analysis is, that principal relations (29) are expressed by writing words large in the same horizontal line, and subordinate relations by writing words smaller and vertically under the words they qualify. Analysis should always precede parsing. The sign is used to express apposition, and () to enclose words understood.


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subject of the verb "crossed." Rule 1. agreeing with its nom. "Cæsar."

Rule 2.



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qualifying "Rubicon." Rule 7.


noun prop.

neut. sing. 3rd, obj.

governed by the verb "crossed."

Rule 5.

EXAMPLE 2. "In came Margaret's grimly ghost."

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