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etc., enemy nationals, Danish and Norwegian wireless, press, cable service, propaganda and justice.)
Work-Organization KNAUSS (L) together with Air Force
Work-Organization KRANCKE together with Command
Main Headquarters (Lt/Col. WEINKNECHT
In the following pages of the document the names of the complete staff of the German Embassy in Oslo are published, as well as the names of the staff of the Consulates and Honorary Consulates in Norway. This is followed by naming the Military Attachés of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and the Norwegian and Danish Cabinet. In appendix three the constitution and history of Norway and Denmark are given in detail, in order to bring about an understanding with the population of these two countries once they have been taken over by Germany. Psychological reactions of the populations of Norway and Denmark are discussed in appendix four as is the way of treating these peoples, if good results are to be achieved.]
"Guiding principles for the attitude of troops in
The Hague Convention for Land Warfare assures the population of an occupied country far-reaching protection by the occupying power. Above all, the honor and the rights of families, the life of the citizens and private property, as well as religious convictions and services must be respected. (Articles 46, 55 and 56 of the Hague Convention for Land Warfare.)
Fundamental principle for the troops: the greatest caution and most extreme reserve vis-a-vis the civil population! Inadvisable blind confidence can entail an endangering of the troops.
Firm cohesion, discipline among the troops, painstaking execution and superintendence of the required security measures are the best protection.
Only in the event of the civil population putting up a resistance or behaving rebelliously can the following decisions be carried out:
1. If the civilian population offers resistance or if attacks by the population on our troops or their lines of communications must be feared, the arrest of hostages should, on principle, be resorted to. Hostages should only be arrested on orders of a brigade commander, independent battalion commander or commander of equivalent rank.
The hostages should, if possible, be chosen from those circles of the population which are expected to carry out hostile acts.
When accommodating and feeding hostages it should be borne in mind that, although the hostages should be under the strictest guard, they are not imprisoned because of crimes.
Hostages and population are to be informed that the hostages will be shot at any sign of any hostile action. Previous sanction of the shooting by the Divisional Commander must, however, be obtained.
Should attacks on the troops or their lines of communication nonetheless occur, or signs of resistance make themselves apparent, the hostages are immediately to be moved under strict guard to a prisoners-collecting-camp (transport ticket). At the same time the Division is to forward with all speed a report about the occurrence and a proposal of the suggested measures (shooting or further detention).
2. Armed resistance by the civilian population is to be crushed by force of arms.
If danger is imminent, every commander is obliged to take all necessary measures.
The death penalty will be imposed for violence of any kind against the German Armed Forces or their members in the occupied territory.
Immediate trials will take place by Field Court Martial (Summary Court or ordinary Court Martial). The Regimental Commander can appoint the Summary Court which will be composed of 1 Captain, 1 Sergeant, 1 Corporal, hear witnesses and draw up the sentence in writing. The verdict will be the Death penalty if guilty, otherwise acquittal. The sentence will be executed immediately after confirmation by the Regimental Commander.
The following, among others, are to be considered as acts of violence: sabotage, destruction of our lines of communication, cutting of telephone wires, demolitions, etc.
In par. 3 of this document instructions relating to the treatment of "franc-tireurs" are given. Franc-tireurs are to be shot in battle or in flight. Those taken prisoners are to be treated not as prisoners of war but as criminals, and if found guilty by the Field Court Martial, are to be condemned to death and the sentence must be carried out by shooting immediately on confirmation by the Commander who has appointed the Court.
Par. 4 lays down that looting will be very severely dealt with.
COPY OF DOCUMENT D-258
SWORN ON OATH BEFORE A MILITARY COURT
The requested investigation on the camp in HUMBOLDSTRASSE gave the following result:
The camp inmates were mostly Jewish women and girls from Hungary and Rumania. The camp inmates were brought to Essen at the beginning of 1944 and were put to work at Krupps. The accommodation and feeding of the camp prisoners were beneath all dignity. At first, the prisoners were accommodated in simple wooden huts. These huts were burned down during an air-raid and from that time on the prisoners had to sleep in a damp cellar. Their beds were made on the floor and consisted of a straw-filled sack and 2 blankets. In most cases it was not possible for the prisoners to wash themselves daily, as there was no water. There was no possibility of having a bath. I could often
observe from the Krupps factory during the lunch break how the prisoners boiled their underclothing in an old bucket or container over a wood fire and cleaned themselves. A slit trench served as an air-raid shelter, whilst the SS guards went to the HUMBOLDT shelter which was bomb-proof. Reveille was at 5 a.m. There was no coffee or any food served in the morning. They marched off to the factory at 5.15 a.m. They marched for 3/4 hrs. to the factory poorly clothed and badly shod, some without shoes, and covered with a blanket, by rain or snow. Work began at 6 a.m., lunch break was from 12 to 12.30. Only during the break was it at all possible for the prisoners to cook something for themselves from potato peelings and other garbage. The daily working period was one of 10 to 11 hours. Although the prisoners were completely under-nourished, their work was very heavy physically. The prisoners were often maltreated at their work benches by Nazi overseers and female SS guards. At 5 or 6 in the afternoon they were marched back to the camp. The accompanying guards consisted of female SS who, in spite of protests from the civil population, often maltreated the prisoners on the way back by kicks, blows and scarcely repeatable words. It often happened that individual women or girls had to be carried back to the camp by their comrades owing to exhaustion. At 6 or 7 p.m. these exhausted people arrived back in camp. Then the real midday meal was distributed. This consisted of cabbage soup. This was followed by the evening meal of water soup and a piece of bread which was for the following day. Occasionally the food on Sundays was better. An inspection of the camp as long as it existed was never undertaken by the firm of Krupp. On 13th March 1945, the camp prisoners were brought to Buchenwald Concentration Camp and from there some were sent to work. The camp commandant was SS Oberscharfuehrer RICK. His present whereabouts are unknown but inquiries should bring results. RICK often made Jewesses kneel in the snow and rain on the camp square according to his whims.
The commandant's deputy SS Unterscharfuehrer KERKMANN of Essen, who, formerly had a paper and art shop near the Minister in Essen, in the Bergstrasse, is now known as ZWOELFLING. Further inquiries must be instigated.
Kriminalassistent on probation.
[Stamp] C. E. LONG, Major
[signed] Hubert KARDEN.
I received the enclosed letter of the 18th of this month, from the German Labour Front (sent to my private address) inviting me to the Office of the German Labour Front, 61 Steubenstr., room No. 20 for Friday the 20th of this month. On the 20th February between 8 and 9 o'clock, I tried to complete the business, which I did not know about, by telephone. The answer from the German Labour Front was that the matter was very important and demanded my personal appearance. Thereupon I asked Mr. Jungerich, of the Department for social labor matters whether I had to go. He answered "You probably don't have to but it would be better if you went." About 9.50 I went round to room 20 at this place and met Herr Prior. ·
The following event provided the cause for this conversation, which Herr Prior carried on in a very lively manner and which lasted about half an hour:
On the 16th inst, 23 Russian Ps.W. were assigned to No. 23 Boiler Shop. The people came in the morning without bread and tools. During both breaks the Ps.W. crept up to the German workers and begged for bread, pitifully pointing out their hunger. (At the first midday, the works had the opportunity of distributing the food which remained over from the French Ps.W., amongst the Russians.) In order to alleviate these conditions, I went to the Weidkamp kitchen on the 17th on instructions from Herr Theile and talked to the head of the kitchen, Fraulein Block, about the provision of the midday meal. Fraulein Block promised me the food immediately and also lent me the 22 sets of eating utensils which I asked for.
At the same time I asked Fraulein Block to give any food left over by the 800 Dutchmen messing there to our Russian Ps.W. at midday till further notice. Frl. Block promised to do this too and the following midday she sent down a container of milk soup, as an extra. The following midday the ration was short in quantity. Since a few Russians had collapsed already, I telephoned Fraulein Block and asked for an increase in the food as the special ration had ceased from the second day onwards. As my telephone conversation was unsuccessful, I again visited Frl. B. personally. Frl. Block refused in a very abrupt manner to give any further special ration.