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synagogues will commence. Gauleiter Julius Streicher will personally set the crane into motion with which the Jewish symbols, Star of David, etc., will be torn down. This should be arranged in a big way. Closer details are still unknown.”

(1724-PS) Streicher himself supervised the demolition, according to a newspaper account of 11 August 1938, which described the scene:

“In Nurnberg the Synagogue is being demolished; Julius Streicher himself inaugurates the work by a speech lasting more than an hour and a half. By his order then—so to speak as a prelude of the demolition—the tremendous Star

of David came off the cupola." (2711-PS) These accounts of violence were not localized anti-Semitic demonstrations, but were directed and ordered from a centralized headquarters in Berlin. This fact is established by a series of teletype messages sent by the Berlin Secret State Police Headquarters to police chiefs throughout Germany on 10 November 1938, which contained instructions pertaining to the prearranged demonstration (3051-PS). One of these confidential orders, signed by Heydrich, provides :

"Because of the attempt on the life of the Secretary of the
Legation von Rath in Paris tonight, 9-10 November 1938,
demonstrations against Jews are to be expected throughout
the Reich. The following instructions are given on how to
treat these events:
"1. The Chiefs of the State Police, or their deputies, must
get in telephonic contact with the political leaders who have
jurisdiction over their districts and have to arrange a joint
meeting with the appropriate inspector or commander of the
Order Police to discuss the organization of the demonstra-
tions. At these discussions the political leaders have to be
informed that the German police has received from the
Reichsfuehrer SS and Chief of the German Police the fol-
lowing instructions, in accordance with which the political
leaders should adjust their own measures.
a. Only such measures should be taken which do not in-
volve danger to German life or property. (For instance
synagogues are to be burned down only when there is no
danger of fire to the surroundings.)
". Business and private apartments of Jews may be de-
stroyed but not looted. The police is instructed to supervise
the execution of this order and to arrest looters." (3051-PS)


At this point the gradual and mounting campaign against the Jews was prepared for the achievement of its ultimate violent ends. The German people had been indoctrinated, and the seeds of hatred had been sown. The German state was armed and prepared for conquest. The force of world opinion could now safely be ignored. Already the Nazi conspirators had forced out of Germany 200,000 of its former 500,000 Jews. The Nazi-controlled German state was therefore emboldened, and Hitler in anticipation of the aggressive wars already planned cast about for a provocation.

In his speech before the Reichstag on 30 January 1939, Hitler declared:

“If the international Jewish financiers within and without Europe succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, the result will not be the Bolshevization of the world and the victory of Jewry, but the obliteration of the

Jewish race in Europe." (2663-PS) The chief editor of the official organ of the SS, the "Schwarze Korps," expressed similar sentiments on 8 August 1940:

"Just as the Jewish question will be solved for Germany only when the last Jew has been deported, so the rest of Europe should also realize that the German peace which awaits it

must be a peace without Jews.” (2668-PS) Other officials of the Party and State voiced the same views. Rosenberg wrote for the publication "World Struggle," which in the April and September 1941 issues declared:

“The Jewish question will be solved for Europe only when

the last Jew has left the European continent." (2665-PS) Hans Frank entered this apologetic note in his diary:

“Of course, I could not eliminate all lice and Jews in only a year's time. But in the course of time, and above all, if you will help me, this end will be attained.” (2233-C-PS)

A. Registration.

The first step in accomplishing the purpose of the Nazi Party and the Nazi-dominated state, to eliminate the Jew, was to require a complete registration of all Jews. Inasmuch as the antiJewish policy was linked with the program of German aggression, such registration was required not only within the Reich, but successively within the conquered territories. For example, registration was required, by decree, within Germany (Reichsgesetzblatt Part I, 1938, page 922, 23 July, signed by Frick); with

in Austria (Reichsgesetzblatt, Volume 1, 1940, page 694, 29 April); within Poland (Kurjer Krakowski, 24 October, 1939); in France (Journal Official No. 9, page 92, 30 September, 1940); in Holland (Verordnungsblatt, No. 16, 10 January, 1941, signed by Seyss-Inquart).

B. Segregation into Ghettos.

The second step was to segregate and concentrate the Jews within restricted areas, called ghettos. This policy was carefully worked out, as is illustrated by the confidential statement taken from the files of Rosenberg (212-PS). This memorandum of Rosenberg's, entitled "Directions for Handling of the Jewish Question”, states:

“The first main goal of the German measures must be strict segregation of Jewry from the rest of the population. In the execution of this, first of all, is the seizing of the Jewish population by the introduction of a registration order and similar appropriate measures


All rights of freedom for Jews are to be withdrawn. They are to be placed in ghettos and at the same time are to be separated according to sexes. The presence of many more or less closed Jewish settlements in White Ruthenia and in the Ukraine makes this mission easier. Moreover, places are to be chosen which make possible the full use of the Jewish manpower in case labor needs are present. These ghettos can be placed under the supervision of a Jewish self-government with Jewish officials. The guarding of the boundaries between the ghettos and the outer world, is, however, the duty of the Police. “Also, in the cases in which a ghetto could not yet be established, care is to be taken through strict prohibitions and similar suitable measures that a further intermingling of blood of the Jews and the rest of the populace does not con

tinue.(212-PS) In May 1941 Rosenberg, as the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories, issued directions confining the Jews to ghettos in the Ukraine:

“After the customary removal of Jews from all public offices, the Jewish question will have to have a decisive solu

tion, through the institution of ghettos." (1028-PS) The policies set forth in the foregoing utterances of Rosenberg were not accidental, isolated, or the views of one individual. They were the expressed State policies. Von Schirach played his part in the program of ghettoization. His speech before the European Youth Congress held in Vienna on 14 September 1942 was reported on page 2, column 2 of the Vienna edition of the “Voelkischer Beobachter" of 15 September, as follows:

"Every Jew who exerts influence in Europe is a danger to European culture. If anyone reproaches me with having driven from this city, which was once the European metropolis of Jewry, tens of thousands upon tens of thousands of Jews into the ghetto of the East, I feel myself compelled to reply: I see in this an action contributing to European

culture." (3048-PS) One of the largest ghettos was within the city of Warsaw. The official report made by SS Major General Stroop concerning this ghetto is entitled “The Warsaw Ghetto Is No More." (1061-PS) The report thus describes the ghetto:

"The Ghetto thus established in Warsaw was inhabited by about 400,000 Jews. It contained 27,000 apartments with an average of 21/2 rooms each. It was separated from the rest of the city by partition and other walls, and by wallingup of the thoroughfares, windows, doors, open spaces, etc.

*(1061-PS) Conditions within this ghetto are indicated in the statement of the report that an average of six persons lived in every room. (1061-PS)

Himmler received a report from the SS Brigade Fuehrer Group A, dated 15 October 1941, which further illustrates the establishment and operation of the ghettos. (L-180) The report states:

"Apart from organizing and carrying out measures of execution, the creation of ghettos was begun in the larger towns at once during the first day of operations. This was especially urgent in Knowno because there were 30,000 Jews in a total population of 152,400.”

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"In Riga the so-called 'Moskau Suburb' was designated as a ghetto. This is the worst dwelling district of Riga, already now mostly inhabited by Jews. The transfer of the Jews into the ghetto district proved rather difficult because the Latvians dwelling in that district had to be evacuated and residential space in Riga is very crowded. 24,000 of the 28,000 Jews living in Riga have been transferred into the ghetto so far. In creating the ghetto, the Security Police restricted themselves to mere policing duties, while the es

tablishment and administration of the ghetto as well as the
regulation of the food supply for the inmates of the ghetto
were left to civil administration; the labor officers were left
in charge of Jewish labor.
"In the other towns with a larger Jewish population ghettos

shall be established likewise." (L-180) Jews were forced into ghettos in the Polish Province of Galicia. The conditions in these ghettos are described in the report from Katzmann, Lt. General of Police, to Krueger, General of the Police East, dated 20 June 1943, and entitled "Solution of Jewish Question in Galicia." (L-18):

"Nothing but catastrophical conditions were found in the ghettos of Rawa-Ruska and Rohatyn

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The Jews of Rawa-Ruska, fearing the evacuation, had concealed those suffering from spotted fever in underground holes. When evacuation was to start the police found that 3,000 Jews suffering from spotted fever lay about in this ghetto. In order to destroy this center of pestilence at once every police officer inoculated against spotted fever was called into action. Thus we succeeded to destroy this plagueboil, losing thereby only one officer. Almost the same conditions were found in Rohatyn



"Since we received more and more alarming reports on the Jews becoming armed in an ever increasing manner, we started during the last fortnight in June 1943 an action throughout the whole of the district of Galicia with the intent to use strongest measures to destroy the Jewish gangsterdom. Special measures were found necessary during the action to dissolve the ghetto in Lwow where the dug-out mentioned above had been established. Here we had to act brutally from the beginning, in order to avoid losses on our side; we had to blow up, or to burn down several houses. On this occasion the surprising fact arose that we were able to catch about 20,000 Jews instead of 12,000 Jews who had registered. We had to pull at least 3,000 Jewish corpses out of every kind of hiding places; they had committed suicide by taking poison.

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Despite the extraordinary burden heaped upon every single SS-Police officer during these actions, mood and

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