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Eugene Sepp, M.D., Professor Neurology,
Medical Institute of Moscow
Member, Academy of Medical Sciences, USSR; and,
Medical Institute of Moscow,
Chief Internist, Conimissariat of Public Health, USSR. Lord Moran, M.D., F.R.C.P.
President of the Royal College of Physicians, assisted by
Chief Consultant Psychiatrist to the War Office, and
Director of Neurology to the London Hospital and
Chief Consultant Neurologist to the War Office
Professor Jean Delay. The Tribunal has requested the commission to examine the defendant Hess and furnish a report on the mental state of the defendant with particular reference to the question whether he is able to take his part in the trial, specifically: (1) Is the defendant able to plead to the indictment? (2) Is the defendant sane or not, and on this last issue the Tribunal wishes to be advised whether the defendant is of sufficient intellect to comprehend the course of the proceedings of the trial so as to make a proper defense, to challenge a witness to whom he might wish to object and to understand the details of the evidence.
3. The examiners have presented their reports to the Tribunal in the form which commends itself to them. It is directed that copies of the reports be furnished to each of the Chief Prosecutors and to defense counsel. The Tribunal will hear argument by the Prosecution and by defense counsel on the issues presented by the reports on Friday, November 30 at 4 P. M.
INTERNATIONAL MILITARY TRIBUNAL
[signed] Geoffrey Lawrence
President Dated Nurnberg, Germany this 24th day of November, 1945 Copies of four (4) Medical Reports attached
(1) British Medical Report REPORT on Rudolf Hess, telephoned from London.
"The undersigned, having seen and examined Rudolf Hess, have come to the following conclusion:
1. There are no relevant physical abnormalities.
2. His mental state is of a mixed type. He is an unstable man, and what is technically called a psychopathic personality. The evidence of his illness in the past four years, as presented by one of us who has had him under his care in England, indicates that he has had a delusion of poisoning, and other similar paranoid ideas.
Partly as a reaction to the failure of his mission, these abnor. malities got worse, and led to suicidal attempts.
In addition, he has a marked hysterical tendency, which has led to the development of various symptoms, notably a loss of memory, which lasted from November 1943 to June 1944, and which resisted all efforts at treatment. A second loss of memory began in February 1945 and lasted till the present. This amnesic symptom will eventually clear, when circumstances change.
3. At the moment he is not insaņe in the strict sense. His loss of memory will not entirely interfere with his comprehension of the proceedings, but it will interfere with his ability to make his defense, and to understand details of the past, which arise in evidence.
4. We recommend that further evidence should be obtained by narco-analysis and that if the Court decides to proceed with the Trial, the question should afterwards be reviewed on psychiatric grounds."
J. Rees, MD, FRCP Dated 19th November, 1945
(2) Joint American and French Medical Report
20 November 1945 MEMORANDUM TO: Brigadier General Wm. L. Mitchell, Gen
eral Secretary for the International Military Tribunal.
In response to request of the Tribunal that the defendant Rudolf Hess be examined, the undersigned psychiatrists examined Rudolf Hess on November 15th and 19th, 1945, in his cell in the Military Prison in Nurnberg.
The following examinations were made: physical, neurological and psychological.
In addition, documents were studied bearing information concerning his personal development and career. Reports concerning the period of his stay in England were scrutinized. The results of all psychological, special psychometric examinations and observations carried out by the prison psychiatrist and his staff
were studied. Information was also derived from the official interrogation of the defendant on November 14th and November 16th, 1945.
(1) We find, as a result of our examinations and investigations, that Rudolf Hess is suffering from hysteria characterized in part by loss of memory. The nature of this loss of memory is such that it will not interfere with his comprehension of the proceedings, but it will interfere with his response to questions relating to his past and will interfere with his undertaking his defense.
In addition there is a conscious exaggeration of his loss of memory and a tendency to exploit it to protect himself against examination.
(2) We consider that the existing hysterical behaviour which the defendant reveals was initiated as a defense against the circumstances in which he found himself while in England; that it has now become in part habitual and that it will continue as long as he remains under the threat of imminent punishment, even though it may interfere with his undertaking a more normal form of defense.
(3) It is the unanimous conclusion of the undersigned that Rudolf Hess is not insane at the present time in the strict sense of the word.
(s) D. Ewen Cameron
DR. D. EWEN CAMERON Professor of Psychiatrie, McGill University
(s) Paul L. Schroeder COL. PAUL L. SCHROEDER A.U.S. Neuropsychiatric Consultant
DR. JEAN DELAY Professor of Psychiatrie at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris
(s) Nolan D. C. Lewis
DR. NOLAN D. C. LEWIS Professor Psychiatry, Columbia University
(3) Soviet Medical Report
TO THE INTERNATIONAL MILITARY TRIBUNAL
In pursuance of the assignment by the Tribunal, we, the medical experts of the Soviet Delegation, together with the physicians of the English Delegation and in the presence of one representative of the American Medical Delegation, have examined Rudolf Hess and made a report on our examination of Mr. Hess together
with our conclusions and interpretation of the behavior of Mr. Hess.
The statement of the general conclusions has been signed only by the physicians of the Soviet Delegation and by Professor Delay, the medical expert of the French Delegation. Appendix: 1 Conclusions and 2 the Report on the examination
of Mr. Hess.
Doctor of Medicine (signed) Professor Sepp, Honorary Scientist, Regular Member of the
Academy of Medicine (signed) Professor Kushakov, Doctor of Medicine, Chief Therapeutist of the
Commissariat of Health of the U.S.S.R. November 17, 1945
(a) Conclusions After observation and an examination of Rudolf Hess the undersigned have reached the following conclusions:
1. No essential physical deviations from normality were observed.
2. His mental conditions are of a mixed type. He is an unstable person, which in technical terms is called a psychopathic personality. The data concerning his illness during the period of the last four years submitted by one of us who had him under observation in England, show that he had a delusion of being poisoned and other similar paranoic notions.
Partly as a reaction to the failure of his mission there, the abnormal manifestations increased and led to attempts at suicide. In addition to the above mentioned he has noticeable hysterical tendencies which caused a development of various symptoms, primarily, of amnesia that lasted from November 1943 to June of 1944 and resisted all attempts to be cured.
The amnesia symptom may disappear with changing circumstances.
The second period of amnesia started in February of 1945 and has lasted up through the present.
3. At present he is not insane in the strict sense of the word. His amnesia does not prevent him completely from understanding what is going on around him but it will interfere with his ability to conduct his defense and to understand details of the past which would appear as factual data.
4. To clarify the situation we recommend that a narco-analysis be performed on him and, if the Court decides to submit him to trial, the problem should be subsequently reexamined again from a psychiatric point of view.
The conclusion reached on November 14 by the physicians of the British Delegation, Lord Moran, Dr. T. Rees and Dr. G. Riddoch, and the physicians of the Soviet Delegation, Professors Krasnushkin, Sepp, and Kurshakov, was also arrived at on November 15 by the representative of the French Delegation, Professor Jean Delay.
After an examination of Mr. Hess which took place on November 15, 1945, the undersigned Professors and experts of the Soviet Delegation, Krasnushkin, Sepp and Kurshakov, and Professor Jean Delay, the expert from the French Delegation, have agreed on the following statement:
Mr. Hess categorically refused to be submitted to narco-analysis and resisted all other procedures intended to effect a cure of his amnesia, and stated that he would agree to undergo treatment only after the trial. The behavior of Mr. Hess makes it impossible to apply the methods suggested in Paragraph 4 of the report of November 14 and to follow the suggestion of that Paragraph in present form.
(signed) Professor Krasnushkin,
Doctor of Medicine (signed) Professor Sepp, Honorary Scientist, Regular Member of the
Academy of Medicine (signed) Professor Kurshakov, Doctor of Medicine, Chief Theraputist of the
Commissariat of Health of the U.S.S.R. (signed) Professor Jean Delay
of the School of Medicine in Paris November 16, 1945
(6) Record of Examination of Rudolf Hess According to the information obtained on Nov. 16, 1945, during the interrogation of Rosenberg who had seen Hess immediately before the latter's flight to England, Hess gave no evidence of any abnormality either in appearance or conversation. He was, as usual, quiet and composed. Nor was it apparent that he might have been nervous. Prior to this, he was a calm person, habitually suffering pains in the region of the stomach.
As can be judged on the basis of the report of the English psychiatrist, Doctor Rees, who had Hess under observation from the first days of his flight to England, Hess, after the airplane