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His men murthered him, and afterward the sayde rebels beheaded lady Anes his wife, who forsooke not her lord in all his travels unto death.

20 Frier Francis Montesino was in the province of Maracapana with 100. souldiers bound for Guiana, when Lopez Aguirri the tyrant made insurrection in all those parts of the Indies. What became of this intended journey is not expressed.

In this discoverie of Guiana you may reade both of Orellana, who discovered the river of Amazones An. 1542. and of Berreo, with others that have trode this maze, and lost themselves in seeking to finde this countrey.

An advertisement to the Reader.
N this Breviarie, the names onely are comprised of

such, as being led with the generall fame of Guiana, have indevoured to discover and possesse it. The whole histories are long and cannot suddenly be translated or englished at large, as we in these Elegies finde them. It may perhaps seeme strange and incredible, that so many cavalleros should all faile in this one attempt, since in many parts of the Indies, far smaller numbers in shorter time have performed as great matters, and subdued mighty kingdomes: I have therefore thought it good here to alleage those reasons, which by circumstance may bee gathered to have beene chiefe impediments to the Spaniard in this intended search and conquest.

The first may bee the remotenesse or distance of their places of Rendevous, from El Dorado : which appeare to be foure, Nuevo reyno, the mouth of Amazones or Orellana, Cubagua or the coast of the Caracas, and Trinidad.

I From Moiobamba, where Orellana hath his headspring, to his mouth, the Spaniards account it 2000. leagues. Raleana riseth neere the said mountaines in Moiobamba, & tributeth his waters to the sea, not farre from the other : Guiana is environed with these 2 fresh


water-seas, where their distance is greatest from their risings, and is besides guarded with impassable mountaines which inclose and defend it on all parts, excepting Topiawaries countrey. It is no marvel then, if the vigor, heart, & life of those Spaniards, who sought it from Nuevo Reyno, were allayed & spent, before they came neere to it, in those long, desolate & uncomfortable wayes.

2 From Cubagua to seeke it by sea in vessels of any burthen, is a worke of far greater labour, then to saile directly from Spaine. And to passe over land is a matter of great difficultie, by reason that the Indian nations inhabiting betweene the coast of The Caracas and Guiana, being wearied and harried with the daily incursions of the Spaniards, have now turned their abused patience into furie, refusing to suffer any forces of men to be led through their countreys. For the Spaniards travelling in those parts, when they found not gold answerable to their expectation, overlaid them with cruelties, tyrannie, and thraldome : forbearing neither men, women, friends, nor foes.

Which maner of dealing, though in some part it satisfied their desire of present profit; yet hath it otherwise done them much harme, in hardening and driving those nations to desperate resolutions.

3 From the mouth of Orellana to seeke entrance with any number of men, & to bore a hole through the mountaines is all one. Neither finde wee, that any seeking it that way, have at any time boasted of their gaines or pleasurable journeys.

4 From Trinidad, as the course is shortest, so doeth it promise best likelyhood of successe. Howbeit, impossible it is with any vessell of ordinarie burthen by that way to recover the river of Raleana.

The second, The Spaniards have bene so farre from helping and furthering one another, or admitting partners

or coadjutors in the Guiana-cause, that amongst so many [III. 692.) attemptes, from the beginning to the last, I cannot find any one, when they were otherwise likeliest to prevaile,


free from discords, mutinies, and cruell murthers amongst themselves.

Thirdly. The Spaniardes in this place have mist that advantage, which elsewhere hath steeded themselves in all their conquestes : namely, the dissentions and mutuall warres of the Indians. Which of that force it is, may

be gathered by the example Arauco in Chili. For the Indians of that one province conteining in circuit not above 20. leagues, have maintained warres above these 30. yeeres against all the Spaniards, and in despight of them have kept their owne countrey, oftentimes discomfiting their enemies in many set battels, burning and destroying some of their strongest townes. The chiefe reason whereof I take to bee, because no Indian nation was enemie unto them. And howsoever the Spaniards vaunt of their redoubted exployts in the Indies : yet doe their owne writings in effect testifie, that without the ayde of the Indians divided among themselves, Mexico, Peru, and the rest, had never beene Spanish.

Lastly. I can impute it to no cause so rightly, as immediatly to the divine providence: for by him princes raigne. And in

And in my beleefe (except we will looke to bee warned by miracle from heaven) wee neede no further assurances, then wee already have to perswade our selves, that it hath pleased God of his infinite goodnesse, in his will and purpose to appoint and reserve this empire

for us.


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