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• poetic fancy, wonderfully brilliant “Invenias ctiam difjeđi membra poetz!" and captivating.

The true poetic eflence, then, con* Thc lunatic, the lover, and the poet, faits in elevation, imagery, and Are of imagination all compact. One fees more devils than valt hell can grandeur ; to which, modulation is hold,

no more than an adjunét; necefThat is the madman : the lover, all as tary, indeed, because it, in fome fra: tic,

degree, neceflarily accompanies aniSees Helen's beanty on a brow of Egypt, The poet's eye, in a fine frenzy rolling,

mated and poetic sentiment." Doth glance from heaven to earth, from

" To these arguments, it may earth to heaven;

be replied: " That the modesty of And, as imagination bodies forth Horace, in excepting himself from The forms of things unknown, the poet's the rank and honours of poetic

pen Turns them to Mapcs, and gives to airy

character, will not be admitted, rothing

even with respeet to those verses, A local habitation and a name."

as to which alone he made the ex

SHARSPEARE. ception. For, who has not in Who can forbcar applving to the every age classed the Epifiles and port, what has been lo jully ap- Satires of Horace, in the number plied to the great critic, lately r. poetic compofitions, though, as quoted,

he says, his fiyle only “ He is himself thc great sublime he

" Pede certo draws!"

Differt fernioni : fermo merus.“ “ Horace, likewise, seems to rank “ If we adhere rigorously to this himself on this fide of the ques- definition, thall. we not exclude tion, in the fourth Satire of his first many candidates, from whom we book, where he endeavours to set- thould be sorry to pluck the welltle the point of poetic characters. earned wreath of poetic fame? Ali He, firit, excepts himself from the verses, where the subject is low or number of 'thole, to whom he would

ridiculous, as the Hudibras of Butallow the name of Poei; because

ler; where it is simple and narracompofitions like his own, ber tive, as the fables of Gay; or even, moni propriorn," do not give a just where it is plaintive and melanclaim to the appellation. He, then, choly, as the Church-Yard of describes the real bard;

Gray, must be banished from the

region of the Muse. Parnatlus «Ingenium cui sit; cui mons divinior, at

must be, “ all cliff," without a fine Magna sonaturum, des nominis hujus ho- g!e vale in all its circuit. None

mult then be deemed a poet, who With respect to himself, and to Lu- cannot foar to its loftieit fummit, cilius, he tells us, that if you take

on epic, or heroic wing. If we away the order and the measure, shouid form an index expurgatotheir verfes would become a fermarius upon this principle, what ha

vock Ihould we make among the MOTUS,' mere profe. Not so, if vou take in pieces that line of Ennius,

minor poets ? How many thould

we exclude, whom every lorer of “ Poftquam discordia tetra the Mufe ranks, with grateful ve. Belli ferratos postes, porta que refregit."

neration, in the number of her inFor then, he exclaims,

spired votaries ?

* Eleration dittinction

que os


“ Elevation of sentiment, ima. between poetic and profaic jargon? gery, and creative fancy, are not If so, fomething else, belides the to be found in poetry alone. They sentiment or senie, is the boundary often belong as much to the orator. berween them. And what is this: For where will you find nobler but that metre or melody, without Nights of imagination, loitier lenti- which, the language which conveys ments, holder addresles to the pa - the lottiest sentiments may be infions, or more animated, we might deed poetical, but can never be say, modulated language, than in poetry it'elf. the Orations of Ciccro; not to “ I shall not pretend to decide, mention those of our modern ora- absolutely, upon the strength or tors, whole eloquence, however, weakness of the foregoing arguwe wouid not fcruple to compare inents. I shall be happy to hear with that of the mot admired an- then fully discused in the ensuing cients ?

conversation, from which I promise “ If we might argue from the myelf both initruction and eniername, poetry, we should naturally tainment. conclude, that the ancients them- “ At present; I find myself diffelves understood by the term, not posed to reit in some such general. those irregular modulations, which conclusion as the following. naturally arose froin the impulse of " To finished and perfect poetry, strong and impaisioned feelings, from or rather to the highet order of grandeur of Sentiment; from beau- poetic compositions, are neceffary, ry, or buidness of imagery ; but, elevation of sentiment, fire of imas, fomething more artificial and ela- gination, and regularity of metre. borate ; something, which demand. This is the summit of Pirnallus. ed, more effort and ingenuity to But, from this siblimest point, there forin, than merely arose from the are gradual declinations, till you' effufions of a glowing heart? come to the region of profe. The

"!s not, then, the proper and last line of separation is, that of peculiar characteristic of poetry, regular metre. And, in common' that metre or rhythm, which the language, not having fettled with ear fo easily diftinguishes, and with precision the nature or boundaries which it is so unipeakably delight. of either, we often apply the poeed? Is not this the great distinc- tic character with great latitude, to tion between the modulation of compofitions, which have more or poetry and prose; that the one is less of the preceding qualities, but regular, determined by certain laws, which are formed into uniforin and and returning upon the ear at ftato regular verfe. Often, the name is ed periods ; whilst the other has no given to works which have nothing Itandard but the general sense of to ditliuguish them but mere nunharmony, and is infinitely irregu- ber. What has not this metrical lar and various ? The imagery or modulation, we call poctical; and sentiment is a mere circunstance what has it, we call prosaic, folely which does not constitute, however upon account of the sentiment. it may adorn, poetic compofition. For poetry and profe, like two coWe can suppose nonsente in profe. lours, easily distinguishable from Can we not equally suppose non- each other in their pure, unmixed senle in poetry? And yet, thall state, melt into one another by al-. there not be an essential difference moft imperceptible Thades, till the

distinction is entirely lost. Their shall be flowing and agreeable, . general characters are widely dif. Hence, the multitudes of indifierferent. Their approximations ad- ent poets, who abound amongst us! mir of the nearest resemblances. But it has been juilly observed,

• With respect to mere number, that a state of cultivated society is the difficulty is not great, in the not favourable to those bolder ex. prefent cultivated state of language, ertions of poetic fancy, which for any person, of a tolerable ear, to elevate, astonish, and delight the tag together lines, the mufic of which mind."


On the PLEASURE which the MIND in many Cases receives from contemplating SCENES of DISTRESS. By T. BARNES, D. D.

(From the same Work. ) Suave mari magno, turbantibus æquora mare im his sensations? And is ventis,

not this Itrong and exquisite sentiE xerri alterius magnum fpe&are periclum, bility intended by my Maker to Non quia vexari quenquam eß jucunda voluptas?

urge me on to active and immediate Sed quibus iple malis careas, quia cernere affiítance ? There sensations are fuave eft.

LUCRETIUS. indeed attended with a noble plea

sure, when I can, by friendly ate HE pleasure described by tention, or by benevolent commu.

the poet in this motto, nication, footh the sorrows of the and of which he has mentioned so poor mourner, snatch him from iinftriking and apposite an instance, pending danger, or supply his preffmay perhaps, at first, fcem of fo ing wants. But, in general, where fingular and astonishing a nature, my fympathy is of no avail to the that some may be disposed to doubt wretched fufferer, I Hy from the of its existence. But that it does spectacle of his misery, unable, or exift, in the case here referred to, unwilling to endure a pain, which and in many others of a similar is not allayed by the sweet satisfackind, is an undoubted fact: and it tion of doing good.” may not appear an useless or dif.

“ It will be incumbent on us, in agreeable entertainment, to trace answer to these objections, in the its fource in the human breast, first place, to prove the reality of together with the final cause for the feeling, the cause of which, in which it was implanted there by the human constitution, we here our benevolent Crcator.

attempt to explore. “ Shall I, it may be said, feel

" Mr. Addison, in his beautiful complacency in buholding a scene,, papers on the Pleasures of the Imain which many of my fellow-erca- gination, has obfervcd, “ that obtures are agonizing with terror, jects or fenes, which, when real, Whilit I can neither diminish their gave difguit or pain, in description, danger, nor, by my fympathy, di- often become beautiful and agreeide their anguila? At the fight able. Thus, even a durghill may, of another's woe, does not my bo- by the charms of poetic imagery, fom naturally feel pain? Do I not excite pleasure and cutertainment,

Scenes Scenes of this nature, dignified by poet, to the actual contemplation apt and itriking description, we re- of affecting scenes. In both, the gard with something of the fame pleasure is supposed to originate in feelings, with which we look upon felfifhness. But, wherever the foa dead monster.

cial passions are deeply interested,

as they are here supposed to be, Informe cadaver, from the pathetic description, or Protrahitur:

: tiequeunte xpleri corda tuendo the still more pathetic survey, of Terribiles oculos, vultum, villosaque ictis Pecora semiferi, atque extindos faucibus the sufferings of another, the lymignes.

VIRGIL. pathetic feelings will, of themselves,

at once, and previously to all reflec* This, he observes, is more tion, become a source of agreeable particularly the case, where the de- and tender emotions. They will Icription raises a ferment in the thus dignify and enhance the satismind, and works with violence up- faction, if any such be felt, arising on the passions. One would won- merely from the confideration of der, adds he, how it comes to pass, our own personal security. And that passions, which are very un- the more entirely we enter into the pleasant at all other times, are very scene, hy losing all ideas of its beagreeable, when excited by proper ing either past or fabulous, the description ; such as terror, dejec, more perfectly we forget ourselves, tion, grief, &c. This pleasure a- and are absorbed in the feeling, rises from the reflection we make the more exquisite is the sensation. upon ourselves, whilst reading it, But, as our subsequent specule that we are not in danger from lations will chiefly turn upon the them, When we read of wounds, pleasure derived from real scenes of death, &c. our pleasure does not calamity, and not from those which rife fo properly from the grief are imaginary, it may be expected, which these melancholy descrip- that we produce instances, in proof, tions give us, as from the secret that such pleasure is felt by percomparison we make of ourselves fons very different in their taste, with those who suffer. We should and mental cultivation. not feel the same kind of pleasure, " I will not mention the horrid if we actually saw a person lying joy with which the savage feasts his under the tortures, that we meet eye upon the agonies and contorwith in a description."

tions of his expiring prisoner-xo “ And yet, upon the principle piring in all the pains which artiassigned by this amiable writer, we ficial cruelty can inflict! Nor will might feel the same, or even higher I turn your eye to the almost pleasure, from the actual view of equally savage fons of ancient dittress, than from any description; Rome, when the majesty of the because the comparison of ourselves Roman people could rush, with ea, with the sufferer would be more gernels and transport, to behold vivid, and consequently, the feel- hundreds of gladiators contending ing more intense. I would only in fatal conflict, and, probably, more observe, that the cause which he than half the number extended, affigns for this pleasure, is the very weltering in blood, and writhing fame with that affigned by Lucre. in agony, upon the plain. Nor rius in our motto. Mr. Addison will I mention the Spanish bull. applies it to the description; the feasts; aor the fervent acclamations


of an English mob around their dreadful scenery, now lifted to the fellow-creatures, when engaged in heavens on the foaming surge, now furious battle, in which it is poifi- plunged deep into the fathomless ble, that some of the combatants abyss, and now dashed upon the may receive a mortal blow, and be rocks, where they are, in a mohurried, dreadful thought! in this ment, shivered into fragments, and, awful itate, to the bar of his with all their mariners, entombed Judge.

in the wave. Or, to vary the quer. “ Let us survey the multitudes tion a little; Who would not be which, in every part of the king- forward to stand safe, on the top of dom, always attend an execution. some mountain or tower, adjoining It may perhaps he faid, that, in all to a field of battle, in which two places the vulgar have little of the armies meet in desperate conflict, fenfibility and tendernets of more though, probably, thoufands may poliMed bofoms. But, in the last foon lie before him prostrate on the mentioned instance, an execution, ground, and the whole field prefent there is no exultation in the lutter- the most horrid feenes of carnage ings of the poor criminal. He is and desola:ion : regarded by every cye with the moit “ That, in all these cases, pleamelting compation. The whole fure predominates in the comassembly sympathizes with him in pounded feeling, is plain from his unhappy lituation. An awful hence, because you continue to Nillness prevails at the dreadful furvey the scene; whereas when moment. Many are wrung with pain became the stronger sensation, unutterable fenfations: and prayer you would certainly retire. I was and filence declare, more loudly lately in company with a gentiethan any language could, the inte. man, who described to me, in very relt they feel in his distress. Should glowing and picturesque colours, a reprieve come to rescue him from an engagement between two privadeath, how great is the general teers, of which he had been a spectriumph and congratulation! And, tator from one of the cliffs on the probably, in this multitude you ealern coast of England. Several will find, not the mere vulgar herd lives were loft; and the contest was alone, but the man of superior long, doubtful, and severe. Har. knowledge, and of more fefined sen. ing this Yubject in my thoughts, I fibility; who, Icd by some strong asked him, whether he felt ple fure principle, which we wish to ex. in the spectacle. He answered with plain, feels a pleasure greater than great energy, that he would not all the pain, great and exquilite as have missed the fight for a very one should imagine it to be, from confiderable fum. His tone and such a spectacle.

manner proved that he spoke froin " The man who condemns many his heart. of the scenes we have already men- “ Caltivation may, indeed, bare tioned as barbarous and Thocking, produced fome minuter differences would, probably, run with the in the taste and feelings of different greateit eagerness to some high cliff, minds. Those, whole fenfibilities overhanging the ocean, to see it have not been refined by education fwelled into tempeft

, though a poor or science, may feel the pleasure vessel, or even a fleet of vesels, in a more gross and brutal form. were to appear as one part of the But do not the most polifbed na.


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