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THE

STANDARD AMERICAN

ENCYCLOPEDIA

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, HISTORY,

BIOGRAPHY, GEOGRAPHY,
STATISTICS, AND GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

WITH

THOUSANDS OF ENGRAVINGS, COLORED MAPS AND CHARTS

PREPARED UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF

JOHN CLARK RIDPATH, LL.D.

ASSISTED BY A Large CORPS OF EDITORS AND OVER ONE HUNDRED WRITERS

ON SPECIAL SUBJECTS

VOL. I

PUBLISHED BY
THE ENCYCLOPEDIA PUBLISHING COMPANY
156 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK

1897

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(INCLUDING THE MEMBERS OF THE EDITORIAL STAFF.)

CLEVELAND ABBE, LL.D.,

| DANIEL CURRY, D.D., LL.D., Of the United States Signal Service.

Editor and Author.
JOSEPH ALDEN, D.D., LL.D.,

THEODORE LEDYARD CUYLER, D.D., LL.D.,
Late President of the New York State Normal

Late Pastor Lafayette Ave. Presb. Ch., Brooklyn.
School, Albany, N. Y.

LIEUT. WILLIAM H. Dall,
DAVID ALLISON, LL.D.,

United States National Museum, Washington, D.O.
President of Mt. Allison College, Sackville, N. B. HoN. N. H. DAWSON,

U. S. Commissioner of Education.
EDWARD G. ANDREWS, D.D.,

ROBERT R. DOHERTY, PH.D.,
Bishop in the Methodist Episcopal Church.

New York.
THOMAS ARMITAGE, D.D., LL.D.,

Anos EMERSON DOLBEAR, PH.D.,
Author of A History of the Baptists.

Tufts College, Mass.
GEN. SAMUEL CHAPMAN ARMSTRONG,

DANIEL DORCHESTER, D.D.,
Supt. Hampton Normal Institute, Hampton, Va.

U. S. Supt. of Indian Schools ; author of Problem
MAJ.-GEN, Romeyn B. AYRES, U.S.A.

of Religions Progress, Christianity in the United

States.
Rev. William BARNHART,

DANIEL DORCHESTER, JR.,
Medway, o.

Professor of Political Economy in Boston University.
COL. ROBERT B. BEATH,

SILAS HAMILTON DOUGLASS, Ph.D.,
Author of A History of the Grand Army.

Professor of Chemistry, Ann Arbor, Mich.
EMIL BESSELS, Ph.D.,

Rev. A. W. DRURY, D.D.,
Arctic Explorer.

Professor in Union Biblical Seminary.
FREDERIC MAYER BIRD,

MAJOR CLARENCE E. DUTTON, U.S.A.,
Lehigh University, Pa.

U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C.
Rev. T. C. BLAKE, D.D.,

CAPT. JAMES B. Eads, U.S.N.,
Stated Clerk of the Gen. Assembly, Cumb. Presb.

Civil and Military Engineer.
Ch. ; late Prof. in Cumb. Univ., Lebanon, Tenn.

DANIEL CADY EATON, Ph.D.,
P. C. BOYLE,

Professor of Botany in Yale College.
Editor Oil City Derrick.
EDWARD F. BRUSH, M.D.,

TAOMAS A. EDISON, PH.D., etc.,

Inventor of the Telephone, Phonograph, etc., etc.
Fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine,
Mount Vernon, N. Y.

C. L. EHRENFELD, LL.D.,
DUDLEY BUCK,

Professor in Wittenberg College, Springfield, O,

formerly State Librarian of Pennsylvania. Composer and Musician, Brooklyn, N. Y. JAMES M. BUCKLEY, D.D., LL.D.,

Hon. Enoch L. FANCHER, A.M., LL.D.,

Judge of the Court of Arbitration, N. Y.
Editor of The Christian Advocale, New York.
GEORGE CHASE, LL.D.,

Rev. John FARLEY,
Professor Law in Columbia College Law School.

Secretary to the Archbishop of N. Y.

WILLIAM P. F. FERGUSON, B.D.,
PERRY COLLIER, M.D.,

Mexican Traveler and Lecturer.
Chief Chemist New York Agricultural Experiment
Station, Geneva, N. Y.

CHARLES H. FOWLER, D.D., LL.D.,
CLARENCE Cook,

Bishop in the Methodist Episcopal Church.
Art Critic New York Tribune, author of The House C. A. FREES, Esq.,
Beautiful, Editor of The Studio, etc.

New York.
H. G. CRICKMORE,

W. W. GODDARD,
Secretary Monmouth Park Association.

Editor Argus-Leader, Sioux Falls, S. Dak.

EDITORIAL CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS.

COL. FREDERICK D. GRANT,

Hon. ROBERT P. PORTER,
Police Commissioner, New York City.

Superintendent of the Eleventh Census.
SETH GREEN,

BONAMY PRICE,
Late Supt. of the Fishery Commission, New York.

Late Professor of Political Economy, Oxford Uni. CHARLES W. GREENE, M.D.,

versity; author of the Principles of Currency. Writer on Geography, Ethnology, etc.

GEORGE G. REYNOLDS, LL.D., William L. Harris, D.D., LL.D.,

Late Chief Judge of the City Court of Brooklyn. Author of Ecclesiastical Law and Rules of Evi. Rev. J. W. Richard, D.D., dence, etc.

Prof. of Homiletics in Theological Seminary, Gettys. ERASTUS O. HAVEN, D.D., LL.D.,

burg, Pa. Late Chancellor of Syracuse University.

John CLARK RIDPATH, A.M., LL.D., ATTICUS G. Haygood, LL.D.,

Author of Cyclopedia of Universal History, Rid. Bishop in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.

path's History of the United States, etc. William Top HELMUTH, M.D.,

CHARLES E. Sajous, M.D.,
Homeopathist, New York.

Chief Editor of the Annual of the Universal Medi. COL. RICHARD J. HINTON,

cal Sciences, Prof. of Clinical Laryngology in the

Jefferson Medical College, and Officer of the Engineer to the U. S. Geological Survey.

Academy of France.
GEORGE C. HURLBUT,

LIEUT. CHARLES A. SCHOTT,
Librarian of the American Geographical Society.

United States Coast and Geodetic Survey
John F. HURST, D.D., LL.D.,

LIEUT. FREDERICK SCHWATKA,
Author of History of Rationalism, etc.

Editor Geographical News, Chicago.
JABEZ R. JAQUES, LL.D.,

FRANK TREAT SOUTHWICK, Esq.,
President of Albert University, Canada.

Meriden, Conn.
M. H. JEWELI.,

Editor The Bismarck Tribune, Bismarck, N. Dak. Hon. W. A. J. SPARKS,
R. W. JONES, A.M.,

Commissioner of the General Land Office.
Professor in University of Mississippi.

CHARLES W. SPRAGUE, Esq.,
JAMES FURMAN KEMP, A.B., E.M.,

Authority on “Artificial Languages."
Asst. Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, Cornell EPHRAIM GEORGE SQUIER,
University.

American Archæologist.
PROF. CHARLES LINDEN,

WILLIAM STODDART, LL.B.,
Late of the High School, Buffalo.

New York.
CHARLES CHAILLE LONG,

THOMAS 0. SUMMERS, D.D., LL.D.,
United States Secretary of Legation, Seoul, Korea.

Late Professor in Vanderbilt University.
CHESTER S. LYMAN,

JOHN TOWNSEND,
Late of the Sheffield Scientific School.

President United States Cremation Company. R. R. McBURNEY, Esq.,

W. P. TROWBRIDGE, Ph.D., LL.D., M.N.A.S., Sec. Young Men's Christian Association, New York.

Professor in School of Mines, Columbia College. JAMES McCARROLL,

W. H. VENABLE, LL.D.,
Auth r and Littérateur.

Cincinnati, O.
GEORGE WALLACE MELVILLE,

JAMES CRAIG Watson, LL.D.,
Chief Engineer, U.S.N., Arctic Explorer.

Late Professor in Michigan University.
WILLIAM J. Milne, Ph.D., LL.D.,

JOSEPH D. WEEKS,
Author of The Inductive Mathematical Series, etc.

Expert and Special Agent U. S. Census.
Col. ALFRED MORDECAI, U.S.A.

A. M. WELLINGTON,
CHARLES MORRIS,

Editor Engineering News.
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.
THOMAS B. NEELY, D.D., LL.D.,

William WELLS, Ph.D., LL.D.,

Professor in Union College.
Author of Parliamentary Law, etc.
SAMUEL S. NELLES, D.D., LL.D.,

Richard WHEATLEY, LL.D.,

Author and Littérateur.
Late President of Victoria University, Canada.

DANIEL D. WHEDON, D.D., LL.D.,
J. MACDONALD OXLEY, B.A., LL.B.,
Montreal.

Author of Whedon's Commentaries, etc., etc. ALPHEUS SPRING PACKARD, M.D.,

HENRY S. WILLIAMS, PH.D.,
Prof. of Zoology and Geology in Brown University.

Professor in Geological Department, Cornell Uni.

versity. PROF. HENRY MARTYN Paul,

ALEXANDER WINCHELL, LL.D.,
Assistant Astronomer at the U. S. Naval Observa-

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.
tory.
THOMAS SARGENT PERRY, LL.D.,

C. SUMNER WITHERSTINE, M.S., M.D.,
Late Instructor in English at Harvard College.

Associate Editor of the Annnal of the Universal

Medical Sciences, Philadelphia.
C. H. F. PETERS, Ph.D.,

Professor and Director of Observatory, Hamilton Prof. C. M. WOODWARD,
College, N. Y.

Manual Training School, Washington University,

St. Louis, Mo.
GEORGE R. PHILLIPS,

For thirty years a Justice of the Peace in Jamaica, CARROLL D. Wrigit, A.M.,
W. I.

Department of Labor, Washington, D. C.

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